Project Management – Kerzner – Chapter 5 – Management Functions
Professionally stimulating work environment
Overall leadership (ability to lead)
Technical expertise (within the team)
Management assistance in problem-solving
Clearly defined objectives
Proper management control
Senior management support
Good interpersonal relations
Clear role definition
A minimum of changes
Making individuals feel that they belong where they are
Placing individuals in positions for which they are properly trained
Letting employees know how their efforts fit into the big picture
Power and authority perceived incorrectly
Dual accountability of personnel
Two bosses (who often disagree)
The project organization encouraging individualism
Subordinate relationships stronger than peer or superior relationships
Shifting of personnel loyalties from vertical to horizontal lines
Group decision making based the strongest group
Ability to influence or administer rewards and punishment
Sharing resources among several projects
Project objectives/outcomes not clear
Dynamic project environment
Competition over team leadership
Lack of team definition and structure
Team personnel selection
Credibility of project leader
Lack of team member commitment
Lack of senior management support
Steps to take early in the life of a team see page 245
Project leaders hold regular meetings to evaluate overall team performance and deal with team functioning problems “what are we doing well and what areas need our attention”
Fear of conflict
Lack of commitment
Avoidance of accountability
Inattention to results
Comparison of teams that have dysfunctions to those that do not (pages 248-249)
The people being led
The situation (i.e., the project environment or problem.)
Managing versus doing
People versus task skills
To whom to send the message
How to translate the message into a language that all can understand
An act or instance of transmitting information
A verbal or written message
A technique for expressing ideas effectively
A process by which meanings are exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols
Oral informal (preferred by project managers)
Legally oriented media: These include contracts, agreements, proposals, policies, directives, guidelines, and procedures.
Organizationally oriented media: These include manuals, forms, and brochures.
Determine the way you will communicate.
Appeal to the interest of those affected.
Give playback on ways others communicate to you.
Get playback on what you communicate.
Test effectiveness through reliance on others to carry out your interactions.
Promotional: Cultivates team spirit
Facilitating: Gives guidance as required, but not interfering
Conciliatory: Friendly and agreeable while building a compatible team
Judicial: Uses sound judgment
Ethical: Honest, fair and by the book
Secretive: Not open or outgoing
Disruptive: Breaks apart unity of group
Intimidating: “Tough guy,” and can lower morale
Combative: Eager to fight or be disagreeable
Establish multiple communications channels
Use face-to-face communications
Determine how sensitive the receiver is
Be aware of symbolic meaning (facial expressions)
Communicate at the proper time
Reinforce words with actions
Use a simple language
Use redundancy (i.e., saying it two different ways)
Sender and receiver having different perceptions. This is vitally important in interpreting contractual requirements, statements of work, and proposal information requests.
Receiver evaluating the source before accepting the communications.
Receiver ignoring conflicting information and doing as he pleases.
Words meaning different things to different people.
Communicators ignoring nonverbal cues.
Receiver being emotionally upset.
Executive management review meetings
Customer project review meetings
Information management including knowledge repositories
Stakeholder identification and impact analysis
Maintain eye contact
Look at the speaker’s body language
Minimize distractions, whether internal or external
Focus on what the speaker is saying without evaluating the message or defending your position
Keep an open mind on what is being discussed and try to empathize with the speaker even if you disagree
Do not interrupt the speaker even if you have a different position
Create a background memo
Group passing technique
Team idea mapping method
Classify and prioritize objectives
Evaluate alternatives against the objectives
Determine which alternative can best achieve the objectives (the tentative decision)
Evaluate the tentative decision for possible consequences
Take decisive actions and any additional actions to prevent any adverse consequences from becoming problems and start both problem analysis and decision-making all over again
Multiple criteria decision analysis
Paired comparison analysis
Linear programming applications