Project Management ISDS 4113

What combination of skills is the highest demand?
project management and business analyst.
translate user’s needs for IT developers.
Other professions demanding project management skills
audit manager
special events manager
producing films
construction management
new product development
marketing campaigns
Project Definition
A unique, one-time activity undertaken to develop something new.

A complex, non-routine, one-time effort to create a product or service limited by time, budget, and specifications.

A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.

A planned undertaking of related activities to reach an objective that has a beginning and an end.

What are projects not?
Routine, repetitive work
Business process
Definition of a program
a series of coordinated, related, multiple projects that continue over extended time intended to achieve a goal
Characteristics of a PROGRAM
1. the associated change is wide-ranging and designed to achieve a common goal or strategic business objective.

2. multiple deliverables staggered over a period of time.

3. timescale is loose and flexible. focused on achieving benefits rather than meeting deadlines.

4. complex and multi-disciplinary

5. scope is fluid and dynamic changes are expected.

What is project management?
the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements.
Project life cycle phase – defining
1. goals
2. specifications
3. tasks
4. responsibilities
Project life cycle phase – planning
1. schedules
2. budgets
3. resources
4. risks
5. staffing
Project life cycle phase – executing
1. status reports
2. changes
3. quality
4. forecasts
Project life cycle phase – delivering
1. train customer
2. transfer documents
3. release resources
4. release staff
5. lessons learned
Two dimensions of the project management process
technical and sociocultural
Aspects of technical dimension of project management
resource allocation
baseline budgets
status reports
Aspects of sociocultural dimension of project management
problem solving
customer expectations
Certified Associate In Project Management
Project Management Professional
Program Management Professional
Risk Management Professional
Scheduling Professional
Project Management Institute
500,000+ professionals
180+ countries
157 members in Baton Rouge chapter
2 types of feasibility to consider
financial and technical
Strategic Management definition
the process of assessing “what we are” and deciding and implementing “what we intend to be and how we are going to get there.”
Strategy definition
how an organization intends to compete with the resources available in the existing and perceived future environment.
IDs who we want to become/who we are.

IDs scope of the organization in terms of its product or service

More specific missions give better results because of a tighter focus

Components of Strategic Management
1. mission
2. long range goals and objectives
3. strategies to meet objectives
4. projects
IT projects support different kinds of:
aspects of a business
and levels of risk
Different objectives of an IT project
more revenue
lower operating costs
regulatory compliance
Different aspects of business for IT project
Baseline operations
Customer/client experience
Assessing the relative merits of a potential project in terms of
Economic feasibility
Technical feasibility
Operational considerations
Legal and contractual considerations
Political considerations
Flaws of Payback Method
1. Ignores time value of money
2. Assumes cash inflows for the investment period (and not beyond)
3. Does not consider profitability
4. Does not consider investment performance after the break-even period
Determinants of the discount rate
Investment alternatives
Project risk
Technical feasibility questions
Will the current infrastructure support requirements?

Is new technology needed?

Does the current IT staff have right skills/experience?

If outsourcing, does the vendor have the skills/experience?

4 primary factors of risk assessment
1. Project size
2. Systems requirements structure
3. Development group
4. User group
Operational feasibility
Will it solve problems/take advantage of opportunities?

Does it fit the way the organization operates?

Schedule feasibility
Should not be conducting testing during rushed business periods.
Legal and contractual feasibility
Labor & privacy laws
Financial reporting standards
Political feasibility
Stakeholder’s opinion
Defining the Project steps
1. Defining the project scope
2. Establishing project priorities
3. Creating the WBS
4. Integrating the WBS with the organization
5. Coding the WBS for the information system
Project scope definition
the end result or mission of the project in specific, tangible, and measurable terms
Project scope outline
1. Project objective
2. Deliverables
3. Milestones
4. Technical requirements
5. Limits and exclusions
6. Reviews with customer (agreement)
WBS definition
a hierarchical outline (map) that identifies the products and work elements involved in a project.

defines the relationship of the final deliverable to its sub-deliverables, and in turn their relationships to work packages.

hierarchical breakdown of WBS
lowest subdeliverable
cost account
work package
work package
basic unit for controlling the project
definite start and stop point <10 days. independent of other WPs no WP is described in more than one subdeliverable of the WBS
Organizational Breakdown Structure
depicts how the firm is organized to discharge its work responsibility for a project.

IDs org. units responsible for WPs

Ties the org units to cost control accounts

Cost account
the intersection of the WBS and the OBS that is a budgetary control point for work packages.
Process Breakdown Structure (PBS)
alternative to WBS

deliverables from one phase are required inputs for the next phase.

the project evolves over time.

Checklist for managing PBS
deliverables need to exit one phase and begin next

quality checkpoints

signoffs by responsible stakeholders to monitor progress

responsibility matrix used for
smaller projects instead of detailed WBS/OBS
After defining the project, next objectives are
determine duration
ID tasks on critical path for the project
Project network
flow chart that graphically depicts the sequence, interdependencies, and start and finish times of the project job plan of activities that is the critical path through the network.
Project networks start with
WBS/OBS work packages
an element of the project that requires time
Parallel (concurrent) activities
activities that can occur independently and, if desired, not at the same time.
a point in time when an activity is started or completed. it does not consume time
3 rules for activity sequencing
No looping
No conditional statements
Use single start and stop node
Guidelines for estimating times, costs, and resources
1. Have people familiar with the tasks make the estimate
2. Use several people to make estimates
3. Base estimates on normal conditions, efficient methods, and a normal level of resources
4. Use consistent time units (e.g., person-days) in estimating task times
5. Treat each task as independent, don’t aggregate
6. Don’t make allowances for contingencies (yet…)
7. Adding a risk assessment helps avoid surprises to stakeholders (e.g., if high risk, provide: 1) optimistic, 2) most likely and 3) pessimistic estimates)
Top down estimates
analogy, group consensus, mathematical relationship

strategic decision making
high uncertainty
internal, small project
unstable scope

Bottom-up estimates
estimates elements of the WBS (work packages)

cost and time important
fixed price contract
customer wants details

The Preferred Method for Estimating (Mixed Approach)
Make top down est
Develop WBS/OBS
Make bottom up est
Develop schedules, budgets
Reconcile differences
4 macro approaches
Ratio methods
Apportion method
Learning curves
4 micro approaches
Parametric procedures applied to specific tasks
Detailed estimates for the WPs
Phase estimating over product life cycle
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