Project Management and Problem Tree Analysis Flashcard
NSTP by General Engineering R-112 on Friday, December 3, 2010 at 12:32am · COMMUNITY ORGANIZING – a method of bringing about development in the community through collective problem solving – the process of raising the people’s capacities, interest/desires and willingness in answering their needs, solving their problems, and working towards the common good through cooperative efforts and collective self-help efforts. – enabling the people to become the principal actors in the process of development of the community. The Community Organizing Process Pre-Immersion Identification of the area for immersion/organizing – Preliminary visit to the identified community – entry may be formal or informal. – Gathering of initial data about the people in the community – initial immersion and integration. Immersion Phase – Data Gathering – Analysis of data/diagnosis/consultation – Planning the Solution/Validation – Implementation – Evaluation Post Immersion – Dialogues/Conferences – Recommendations for Sustainability – Follow-ups. Do’s and Don’ts for a Community Organizer Free yourself from biases and don’t discriminate
Be Flexible (avoid complaining / do not make comparisons) Good motivation Smile to people and respect them Converse and identify with people, refrain from engaging in vices. Do not dictate…start where people are. Never make promises for help or favor Treat people as partners in development Coordinate with existing groups Evaluate the projects and do not forget to thank the people. SESSION FIVE SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS • A collective process of examining the prevailing social, political, economic, environmental, education, cultural and spiritual conditions of a given community. An activity that is done in a systematic and scientific manner. 5 Steps of Situational Analysis 1. Orientation – conduct a courtesy call to barangay officials / school principal. 2. Gather Data – data gathered will be th basis for identifying needs and problems that can contribute to achieve community goals. DATA GATHERING TOOLS AND TIPS Observation – the information you want is about observable things and events, and when you need to cross-check people’s account of what is happening. Interviews – You need to know about people’s experience in some depths… the issue is sensitive.
Focus Group Discussion – a group interview, where six to twelve people are brought toge-ther for a discussion. Questionnaires – A written list of questions, either given or posted to respondents, who fill it themselves Study of Documentary Sources – Documents are treated as sources of data in their own right VISUAL METHODS – DATA GATHERING Participatory Mapping – This will allow you to discover the “mental maps” of community members. Social Mapping – A group of local people is asked to show where the poorest households are located Transects – A diagram of the main land use zones, helpful in research elating to natural resources and in learning quickly about a new place 3. Process and Analyse Data – the stage where you have to arrange, organize and classify the information you have gathered. PROBLEM TREE ANALYSIS TOOL (Cause and Effect) • involves constructing a network of problems following a linear logic. • A structured presentation of all identified and real problems that includes other relevant information about a particular problem. CONSTRUCTING A PROBLEM TREE There are a number of steps when constructing a problem tree. List all the problems that come to mind. The problem is an existing negative situation. • Identify a Core Problem • Determine which problem are “causes” and which are “Effects” • Arrange in hierarchy both Causes and Effects • Review the diagram and check if it is complete and logical. OBJECTIVE TREE ANALYSIS (means and ends) • the exact opposite of problem tree analysis • the problem statements are converted into objective statements 4.
Writing the Community Diagnosis Report – the step where you put into writing the information you have gathered. TIPS IN WRITING THE DIAGNOSIS REPORT • Get the meaning behind the figures • Link results / data gathered with actions you intend to take • Keep the report short and clear • Plan spacing and layout. Use subheadings, emphasize key words • Combine narrative form and illustration • Label Tables FORMAT – how the report should look • Introduction / Background • Methodology • Findings • Conclusion and Recommendations Appendices 5. Finalize Report for validation – it is important that you “return” the information you gathered and validate these with the people concerned. SESSION SIX (a) SOCIAL ISSUES AND PROBLEMS Common Social Issues include POVERTY, violence, JUSTICE, human rights, EQUALITY (discrimination), crimes, CONFLICTING VIEWPOINTS and TENSIONS between people. Social Problems – exists when an influential group defines a social conditions threatening its values; when it affects a large number of people. Elements of Social Problems They cause physical or mental damage to individuals or society people suffer before any action is taken to solve the problem They offend the values or standards of some powerful segment of society – no matter what you do someone will always take offense against your action because everyone has different views and values They persist for an extended period of time – as you solve the problem another always arises Generating competing proposed solutions because of varying evaluations from groups in different social positions within a society, which delays reaching consensus on how to attack the problem many different social groups have different ideas and solutions to the problems Sociological Perspective on Social Problems Functionalist Orientations – focuses on the social structures that hold a society together Conflict Orientations – social problems arises from disorganization due to group differences Interactionist Orientations – concentrates on how people perceive and define the events that influence their lives Feminist Orientations – gives women a voice in a world that has been dominated by male-oriented perspectives in the past
Postmodernist Orientations – insist that the change is so great SOLVING SOCIAL PROBLEMS Prevention – focus on preventing a problem to happen. Intervention – focus on intervening after the problem has emerged with an effort to reducing or eliminating it. Social Reform – suggest that society is not healthy and the persistence of the social problems is a symptom of this. Reconstruction – redefining the nature and extent of social problems Alleviating Consequences – direct the attention towards alleviating the negative consequences of the problem. Session 7a – Project Development
The Components of Project Cycle Situational Analysis – The most critical phase of the project cycle. A wrong assessment of the project will lead to inappropriate interventions. Project Planning – This involves two stages – project design and feasibility study. The project design involves the formulation of project objectives based on the situational analysis. – The project plan provides you necessary information on: o What the project intends to achieve (development goal) o How the project is going to be implemented (activities) Where the data can be found (means of verification) o How much it would take to implement the project (budget) o Where the budget will be sourced (budget allocation) Project Appraisal – involves the evaluation of the project by the implementers and the community partners to determine if the project plan meets its development requirements. Project Implementation – The state during which the contents of the project plan is undertaken. Project Operation – marks the full transfer of the operation of the project to the beneficiaries. Monitoring involves measuring the progress, accomplishments, deviations of the project which serves as a reference for adjusting and controlling the project. Evaluation – Involves the measurement of the effects or impact of the project. Session 7b – Project Planning Steps in Preparing a Project Set Objectives Define and determine the present situation and set objectives that are SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time-bounded) Determine solutions and alternatives The person should have one or two solutions in mind and weigh the alternatives that could best solve the problem.
Decide It is a process of arriving at a solution, a choice to solve the problem. When making decisions the following should be asked: § What is the problem? § What are the things that can be done to solve the problem? § What is the best thing to do? Implement the stage where the person puts his decision into action Evaluate a process of determining whether the objectives set in the plan are met. Steps to consider in Evaluation § Select the activity to be evaluated § Identify the objectives of the evaluation § Identify the elements that went into each activity What were the difficulties? – What were constraints? – What went into each activity? § Describe the operation – how one goes about the projects § Observe measures and evaluate the operation § Identify indicators of success or failures and analyze such indicators WRITING THE PLAN What is a Proposal? A proposal is an outline reflecting the project concept, manner of implementation and the output expected to be generated, and how much it could cost to undertake it. Contents of the Proposal The following is the usual format when writing a project proposal:
Identifying Information Name of Project Project Location Duration Target Beneficiaries Project Cost Rationale/Background – a descriptive summary why the project is important. Objectives (General and Specific) Project Organization – refers to the schedule of implementation of the project. Also refers to the structure that will manage or implement the project. – Reflected Form of the Action Plan § Objectives § Related Activities § Time-Frame § Responsible Persons § Resource Requirements § Expected Output Budgetary Requirement A clear presentation of the cost to implement the project, the component and partner’s counterpart. TIPS IN PACKAGING YOUR PROPOSAL Follow a standard format Cover page should include the following: – Title of the Project – Who prepared the proposal. – For whom the proposal was prepared. Executive Summary. Table of Contents … is not required if the proposal is less than 10 pages. Margin – a 1 inch all round margin is acceptable. Graphics are used to simplify complex concepts. Language – use the vernacular or language appropriate to the audience.