Profile Of Iraqi Community In Saudi Arabia Sociology Essay Essay
In the early 1960s, Saudi Arabia was still in developing procedure ensuing from the oil flow in 1930s. With this extremist alteration in the societal construction, the disposal realized the importance of making a program to confront the rapid economic developments happening in the land. Sing the income of the Oil to the socio-economic state of affairs of the state, an obvious demand to put out five old ages program to accomplish the basic criterions of evolvement was felt. King Faisal sought to implement a strategic development program by importing modern manner of life under an Islamic umbrella. He planned to present assorted facets of modern disposal and western engineering non contradicted by the rules of Islam ( Abir, 1988: 4 ) including modern instruction in its assorted subjects. The deficiency of Saudi professionals, hence, necessitated using foreign instructors and expertness.
To develop incorporate urban metropoliss, assorted steps were taken. To carry through the intent, schools and infirmaries were built, telephones and electricity were introduced, running H2O, roads and landing fields were constructed all of which were carried out by foreign work force and expertness, imported from all over the universe. The accomplishments of every bit good as non-Arabs and non-Muslims were employed in Saudi development. Most of them were recruited as instructors in universities and schools, applied scientists, chemists, doctors, physicians, contractors, nurses and business communities. There are undeniable common involvements between Saudi Arabia and other states that entailed the flow of all the skilled labourers, instructors and business communities to Saudi Arabia at the oil roar epoch.
Inspite of the disruptive dealingss between Saudi Arabia and Iraq at all phases since monarchy epoch until the autumn of Saddam ‘s government, Saudi Arabia managed to be diplomatic and cautious in covering with Iraq ‘s political and socio-economic issues. With the tense Saudi-Egyptian dealingss and the support of Nasir ‘s to the democracy in Yemeni war caused suspension of traffics with the Egyptian labour. As an option, Saudi disposal considered the feasibleness of conveying qualified professionals from Iraq. Hundreds of them came and occupied assorted professions. In add-on to working as province ‘s representative staff in embassies and consulates, these specializers received contracts from competent governments which found a deficiency of local qualified employees. Meanwhile, Saudis were sent abroad to derive experience and certifications to busy high places in the province when return as promised. When Iraq was undergoing rapid political alterations ( developments, putschs d’etat and purgings ) , persons who had been involved in some kind of political battle of resistance fled the state ( Al-Rasheed, 1994:204 ) seeking protection, and after the ruin of Saddam ‘s government they were the first to see Iraq.
With the transition of clip the strong presence of Iraqi community began to be debatable, with its complex diverseness of political, spiritual, societal and cultural backgrounds particularly the Ba’athist. Their forceful influence on the Saudi society was dismaying. Hence, the authorities found it hard to get by and command the spread of their political orientation. The Saudi subdivision of the Ba’th motion was founded in 1958. At first it looked to the Syrian Ba’th for counsel. After the early sixtiess, with the rise in power of the Iraqi Ba’th, the little Saudi Ba’th motion became mostly Iraqi-oriented and its activities spread to Eastern Province. ( Abir, 1988:77 ) Therefore, Saudi authorities had returned most of the Iraqis as they posed a menace to the province. By that clip Saudi-Egyptians dealingss had improved, hence, the Iraqi professionals were replaced by the Egyptian specializers. The Iraqis that were left inside the land were either political refugees or their political and spiritual orientation did non oppose with the province ‘s tendency.
In 1980s, 1990s and farther, Saudi Arabia witnessed a new moving ridge of Iraqi presence. Qualified work forces keeping higher grades and naturalized with different nationalities, such as American, English, German and Australian, entered into the province. Their transmittal to Saudi Arabia and Gulf country came by pick seeking for Islamic and Arabic environment as a sensible option for their state of beginning. Normally these households consist of two coevalss, the caput of the household, his married woman and their small childs. While their immediate families are either in Iraq or deployed around the universe. Their on the job contracts were cancelled as a effect of Iraq-Iran war and have been asked to go forth the state, while some others resigned before they were expelled.
After the 2nd Gulf War in 1991, 33,000 Iraqis fled from Al-Najaf heading south towards Saudi Arabia, United Nation High Commission for Refugees ( UNHCR ) arranged with the Saudi authorities to supply these refugees a lasting abode until they find another state or return to Iraq. They were forced immigrants settled in north Saudi Arabia in the metropolis of “ Rafha ” , subsequently on their shelters were called “ Rafha Camp ” and most of the colonists were Arab ‘Shi’it ‘ . Around 160 of them were able to acquire individuality paperss authorized by the Ministry of the Interior to give them the flexibleness of traveling around the state, work and having societal services. In 2008 the last 77 of the 33.000 Iraqis were deported from “ Rafha Camp ” to Iraq, where the UNHCR found that the security conditions in Iraq were stable. This group of Iraqis is non included in my research because they are considered refugees and the Iraqis concerned in my research are those who settled before. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.refugees.org/countryreports.aspx? id=2340, accessed on 14.6.2010 ) .
Status of Iraqi community in Saudi Arabia
This subdivision of the research explores the standing of Iraqi community indoors Saudi Arabia. The section provides point of position of Iraqi colonists. The Iraqi community members in Saudi Arabia regard themselves as voluntary migrators who chose to settle ( Al-Rasheed, 1994: 203 ) in Saudi Arabia. In my interviews I asked the Iraqis of first coevals preliminary inquiry, how many old ages have you intended to remain and how many old ages it has become? The reaction of the interviewees and the reply was hurting to have, the reaction was of drawn-out intermission followed with a suspiration, after reiterating my inquiry in a tone filled with heartache and a wry smiling, the replies was out of the blue painful. All replies indicated that the purpose to remain was for several old ages so went on boulder clay this twenty-four hours, the figure of the old ages they have mentioned varied signifier household to another it ranged between six months to two old ages.
Socio economic profile of a community is apparent from the life style and activities adopted by it. Harmonizing to Iraqi Embassy the approximative figure of Iraqis life in Saudi Arabia estimated of 7000 people and deployed in major metropoliss of E, center and west states and came from different cultural backgrounds. Currently Iraqi families in Saudi Arabia consist of three coevalss, Father/mother, son/daughter and grandson/granddaughter. Single men/women are seldom seen and are normally employed by the Iraqi embassy or consulates. As for the official paperss, Iraqis in Saudi Arabia hold one of three different types of designation paperss -residential permission, citizenship paperss and a passport due to particular royal edict.
Saudi Arabia has attracted Iraqis for several grounds, one of the most of import factors is that both states portions similar socio-economic features. The societal construction varies from one household to another, due to the fact that Iraqi households were considered to be a minority amongst other aliens in Saudi Arabia. The contrasts in societal categories are noticeable. By the clip they have accommodated and adapted with the rapid societal alteration happening in the part, they have developed themselves by seeking better chances and rise publicities in their callings, we can state they have become upper and in-between category. Besides being employees, most of the community members sought to better their fiscal status through trade, by buying lands and houses in Iraq, England or in Saudi, some succeeded and became upper-class others failed and stayed within the in-between category.
Education and Employment
The instruction and employment are the two of import dimensions for the societal description of any group of people ; this section of research trades with these dimensions relative Iraqis populating abroad. Fortunately the 2nd coevals of first moving ridge of Iraqi immigrants found schools ( primary and simple ) to go to during the sixtiess, when the Saudi instruction was at its first phase of development. In my interviews with the Iraqi community members who came earlier and later, most of the first coevals expressed their letdown and nem con agreed that the degree of instruction in
Saudi Arabia did non make their outlooks. To be more specific, instruction of scientific discipline was non parallel in strength with the Iraqi course of studies, whereas the Islamic surveies in Saudi Arabia were more profound. Furthermore, Iraqis and other Arab aliens were non allowed to inscribe in Saudi universities. Exceptions were made to those whose parents were lectors at the university. Hence, they have two solutions either travel abroad or remain in their houses waiting for an alternate chance. Several private colleges were established to cover the overall demand of Saudis and aliens every bit good, by showing broader countries of surveies and leting non-Saudis to inscribe. However, they were dearly-won ( and unaffordable for some ) every bit good as non recognized internationally. Iraqis have a strong impulse and desire for higher instruction even the homemakers are eager to re-start their instruction.
The Iraqis who arrived between 1960s and 1980s were qualified and brought with them the modern scientific discipline that Saudis lacked. They were make fulling a spread in the forms of employment construction by nationalising the occupations which affected on 2nd coevals of the Iraqi community members dramatically. Finding appropriate occupation chances were slender for those who portion the same instruction background with the locals, unless they were sent abroad to acquire typical grade which signify their abilities and considered to be skilled as compared to others. Sometimes acquiring a grade does non ever use your abilities particularly for those who carry abode position and Saudi passports every bit good. “ The enlargement of third instruction, progressively at a graduate student degree, has created high employment aspirations, taking many immature people to late entryway in the labour market, since increased prosperity and strong household ties can back up them until the clip they will happen a ‘dignified ‘ occupation fiting their makings ” ( Hatziprokopiou, 2006:52 ) . that portrays the state of affairs of Qasims ‘ instance, ( 38 ) male from the Iraqi 2nd coevals, holds Saudi passport, holding a important maestro grade, seeking for a occupation chance that matches with his criterions, have spent a twelvemonth and half using to major companies and universities. Most interviews were ended with common sentence one time they know he is non Saudi ‘we would wish to hold you in our company/university if you were Saudi ‘ the remainder was non suited offers. Finally Qasim decided to laud his higher instruction and acquire a PhD as a solution for acquiring a ‘dignified ‘ occupation one twenty-four hours when he returns.
“ It is assumed that after out-migration the effects on both host and sending economic systems ( effects on rewards, employment, life and ingestion criterions. ) ” ( Hatziprokopiou, 2006: 52 ) . This is a fact, defeat feelings from both Iraqis and Saudis were obvious, where the citizens complain of unemployment and are biased towards the aliens, whereas the 2nd coevals of Iraqis objects about the racism and favoritism. My analysis came from observation and interviews of some of the Iraqis life in Saudi Arabia, non needfully reflect the stereotype of the society. Furthermore, sing entree to employment, the determination suggest that migrators tend to trust mostly on informal relationships of support and solidarity. ( Hatziprokopiou, 2006:147 ) in happening survey and occupation chances.
The subdivision includes the location of Iraqis in the state. As mentioned earlier that Saudi Arabia and Iraq portions similar societal form, most of Iraqi families have big house that accommodated three coevalss irrespective of the societal category, which can be distinguished through the vicinities where they chose to populate. When the caput of the household foremost immigrate to Saudi Arabia his fiscal state of affairs does non let him to have a house or even lease it, hence he is compelled to happen abode that commensurate with his fiscal and societal background. Normally this abode is apartment built in different vicinities. At the 3rd or 4th move he becomes able to settle in a house that matches with his socio-economic position.
As my thesis dressed ores on the Iraqi community of Jeddah in peculiar, I must exemplify the abode form of the metropolis. “ Naturally, there is a grade of diverseness, in footings of age, household position, the country where they live ” ( Hatziprokopiou, 2006:198 ) .
Jeddah is considered to be one of the widely distributed metropoliss around the universe in its importance due to the strategic location as being a gate manner to the holy metropoliss of Mecca and Madina and the remainder of the Arabian Peninsula. Aesthetic character of Jeddah lies in its historical reliable and the heterogenous population, it has assimilated all sort of diverse cultural backgrounds, all of which have settled and coexisted with the spiritual, political, societal, cultural and economical form, some were naturalized and held the Saudi position.
Jeddah ‘s spacial construction consist of territories and streets and the metropolis was exposed to a rapid altering procedure of development which had lessen the importance of one territory 30 old ages back and the demanded another newer topographic point. More than 70 old ages back population of Jeddah had settled in southern and western parts and bit by bit they had moved towards the North and more modern set up of streets, houses, edifices and shopping centres. Socio-economic and spiritual degree has a function in the choice of the topographic point of abode. As mentioned before Iraqi families ‘ lived in different topographic points over the old ages of their presence, their pick of abode varied from household to another that was dependent on the caput of the household priorities some they put in head how near or far the mosque from the house, so income and using benefits determine the pick of the country and how big the house would be, and wither he allow lodging allowance or non, chiefly they lived where upper and in-between category Saudis lived. Recently three of the Iraqi households in Jeddah happened to populate in the same territory located in the North-East at the seashore side. Some others choose to populate near their on the job country regardless of the territory ‘s importance. I have noticed that the Iraqi households who lived in the same country were glad to be around each other for the easiness of communicating and entree, and want of the staying to be able to fall in them.
This subdivision investigates the societal interaction of the Iraqi migrators settles in Saudi Arabia. Wherever there is a group of people populating, they require organisations and governments to work out their jobs and maintain them together. As there are no formal immigrant organisations refering the Iraqi socio-cultural or political positions, most socialization/gathering is within the families. Due to the fact that the Iraqi community is little in Numberss, hence, the thought of making any kind of formal organisation was non considered. The enterprise of the societal assemblage comes from the community members merely. They were sufficient with the recognized imposts of assemblage ; their societal assemblage set up consists of meetings on regular bases with those who were closely related of family or friends. In the particular occasions such as ( observing vacations, congratulating, recognizing the reaching of some relations came to see from Iraq or from another part inside Saudi and marrying ceremonials ) in these instances meetings were on a wider scope of friends and more formal. These societal events gather all Iraqi community members irrespective of their spiritual and cultural backgrounds. Iraqis address each other by the name of the metropolis they live in, for illustration ; ‘Iraqeen ahl alriyadh or ‘Iraqeen ahl Mecca. The actual significance is ; “ Iraqis of Riyadh or Iraqis of Mecca ” .
Iraqi community members, work forces and adult females, did non waver to fall in Saudi socio-religious organisations which do attention for the public assistance of locals and international needy communities irrespective of faith, race, and civilization. Some of them were playing taking functions in such organisations. One of those Iraqis was the well known spiritual militant Sheikh Mohamed Mahmud Al-Sawaf who was behind the spread of the political orientation of Muslim brotherhood in Iraq ; hence, he fled from Iraq to Saudi Arabia through Syria seeking for political refuge. He was granted the Saudi Nationality and honored by King Faisal and was given the freedom to pattern his activities. He has contributed significantly in set uping several organisations such as ( Organization of the Islamic Conference, Muslim universe conference, The Supreme Council of Mosques ) . ( Wikipedia )
Other Iraqis who came subsequently with the same orientation contributed in same organisations and were establishing members of International Islamic Relief Org, World Assembly of Muslim Youth etc.