Professional School Counselor PRAXIS II

How do professional school counselors access research resources?
Professional organizations (ASCA)
Peer-reviewed journals
Library or Internet (cautiously)

What factors are important for school counselors to examine when interpreting research?
Asks important questions
Sound research design with clear goals
Legal and ethical
Instruments should be validated

Good quantitative research methods allow for:
Testing of hypothesis

Good qualitative research methods can provide for:
Understanding phenomena/processes that can serve exploratory purposes and provide deep knowledge

Benefits of membership in professional organizations include:
Professional development
Lobbying efforts
Liability insurance
Accessibility to resources
Professional learning communities

The field of school counseling has gone through what three major periods?

Benchmarks during the FORMATIVE period of the school counseling profession included:
Frank Parson becomes proponent of guidance counseling
Focus on growth and prevention
Jessie B. Davis implements regular guidance, emphasis on vocational/career instruction
Personnel responsible for student services
Military uses psychologists and counselors to select and recruit

Benchmarks during the TRANSITIONAL period of the school counseling profession included:
Carl Rogers moves field away from educational guidance and toward client-centered counseling
American School Counseling Association formed
National Defense of Education Act passed allowing for more funding
Dinkmeyer, Myrick, and Gysbers focused on developmentally appropriate, evidence-based school counseling structure

Benchmarks during the CONTEMPORARY period of the school counseling profession included:
Education for All Handicapped Children Act increases services
Leads to Individualized Education Plans (IEPs)
ASCA National Standards developed with holistic point of view
ASCA National Framework developed to provide guidelines on an effective school counseling program

Trends in the educational system
Positive behavior support
Professional learning communities

ASCA National Model ensures
1. Equitable access to education
2. Specific knowledge and skills will be gained by K-12 students
3. School counseling services delivered to all systematically
4. School counseling services are data-driven
5. School counseling services are provided by state-credentialed counselor

ASCA Recommendations
Ratio 1:250
80% of time spent in direct or indirect services to students

ASCA National Model is made of three parts:
FOUNDATION- Component that drive school counseling program
MANAGEMENT- Assessments and tools that manage a school counseling program
DELIVERY- Method of delivering programming
ACCOUNTABILITY- Helps professional school counselors analyze data

Program focus- Mission statement and goals
Student competencies- Academic, career, and personal/social development
Professional competencies- Knowledge, attitudes, and skills of good counseling

School counselor competency/program assessment
Use-of-time assessment
Annual Agreements
Advisory councils
Curriculum, small group, close-the-gap action plans
Annual and weekly calendars

ASCA National Model DELIVERY
Direct services
School counseling core curriculum
Individual student planning
Responsive services
Indirect services

Using data to measure impact of services
Guide new programming
Judge performance

ASCA National Model THEMES
Effective relationships
Systemic change

ASCA National Standards

ASCA National Standards for ACADEMIC development
A: Knowledge, attitudes, and skills that contribute to effective learning
B: Complete school prepared for college
C: Understand the relationship between education and work

ASCA National Standards for CAREER development
A: Skills to investigate the world of work
B: Employ strategies to achieve occupational goals
C: Understand the relationship between personal qualities, education, training, and work.

ASCA National Standards for PERSONAL/SOCIAL development
A: Knowledge, attitudes, and skills to understand self and others
B: Make decisions, set goals, take action
C: Safety and survival skills

School counselor roles:

Elementary school counselors:
Help students develop their academic self-concept
Teach decision making, communication, and life skills
Provide early education, prevention, and intervention services

Middle school counselors:
Help with transition from childhood to adolescence
Help students establish identity
Help students explore interests
Make connections between school and work

High school counselors:
Help students transition to adulthood and its responsibilities
Guide students toward graduation and post-secondary schooling
Develop sense of self

NON-counseling duties
Discipline, substitute teaching, managing school functions

Cognitive Development Theorists

Driving force is our experiences with our environment
Schemas- mental molds
Assimilation- adding new experiences
Accommodation- adjusting to fit new info

Paiget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor (birth-2 years): Experience the world through senses
Preoperational (2-7 years): Representing things with words and images, more intuition, less logic
Concrete operational (7-11 years): Thinking logically about concrete events, math
Formal operational (11- adulthood): Abstract reasoning

Children construct their knowledge
Development cannot be separated from social context
Learning leads to development
Language plays central role

Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
What is known-

ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (Skills too difficult for a child to master on their own, needs guidance and encouragement from a knowledgeable person)

What is unknown-

Personality and emotional development theorists

Trust v. Mistrust: Feeding
Autonomy v. Doubt: Toilet training
Initiative v. Guilt: Exploration
Industry v. Inferiority: School
Identity v. Role Confusion: Social relationships
Intimacy v. Isolation: Relationships
Generativity v. Stagnation: Work and parenthood
Ego Integrity v. Despair: Reflection on life

Operant conditioning
Behavior leads to consequence
Positive consequence- Repeat behavior
Negative consequence- Do not repeat behavior

Self actualization + Unconditional pos regard= Self actualization
Need for pos regard + conditional pos regard = Self discrepancies

Love and belonging
safety and security
physiological needs

Rogers Incongruent v. Congruent
Incongruent: There is a large difference between self-image and ideal-self (difficult to self-actualize)
Congruent: Self-image is similar to ideal-self (likely to self-actualize)

Social and Character Development

Socio Teleo Analytic Theory
(social) (Goal) (Analyze)
People need:
To develop and work to achieve meaningful and rewarding goals
A lifestyle that leads to a positive sense of ourselves
Connectedness to community
Satisfying work

Emphasis on birth order

Moral development
Preconventional- Punishment/obedience and Intrumental relativism
Conventional- Interpersonal concordance and Authority maintaining
Postconventional- Social contract and Universal ethical principle

Humans are lonely and have become separated from nature and one another.
Freedom is important: embrace (psychological health) or escape (psychological issues)?

Family Systems Theory
Family is made up of independent individuals and subsystems.
Whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Families have boundaries and are part of a larger social context.
Systems are homeostatic and try to return to normalcy after stress.

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
1. You
2. Microsystem (family, school, peers, work, church)
3. Mesosystem (family, school, peers, work, church)
4. Exosystem (Economic, political, education, government)
5. Macrosystem (Overarching beliefs and values)
6. Chronosystem (Dimension of time)

ASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Students
Responsibilities to students
Academic, Career/College/Post-Secondary Access and Personal/Social Counseling Plans
Dual Relationships
Appropriate Referrals
Group Work
Danger to Self or Others
Student Records
Evaluation, Assessment and Interpretation
Student Peer Support Program

ASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Parents
Parent Rights and Responsibilities
Parents/Guardians and Confidentiality

ASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Colleagues and Professional Associates
Professional Relationships
Sharing Information with Other Professionals
Collaborating and Educating Around the Role of the School Counselor

ASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Schools, Communities, and Families
Responsibilities to the School
Responsibility to the Community

ASCA Ethical Responsibility to the Self
Professional Competence
Multicultural and Social Justice Advocacy and Leadership

ASCA Ethical Responsibility to the Profession
Contribution to the Profession
Supervision of School Counselor Candidates Pursuing Practicum and Internship Experiences
Collaboration and Education about School Counselors and School Counseling Programs with other Professionals

ASCA Ethical Responsibility to Maintenance of Standards
Collegaues ethical behavior
Forced to work in unethical situations
Ethical dilemmas

Ethical Decision Making Model
1. Define the problem emotionally and intellectually
2. Apply the ASCA Ethical Standards and the law
3. Consider the students’ chronological and developmental levels
4. Consider the setting, parental rights and minors’ rights
5. Apply the moral principles
6. Determine Your potential courses of action and their
7. Evaluate the selected action
8. Consult
9. Implement the course of action

Section 504 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Civil rights statue
Guarantees access to education for students with an identified physical or mental condition that substantially limits a major life activity.
Ex: Student with diabetes permitted to use the bathroom at any time without asking permission.

IDEA Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Federal programming statue
Guarantees services for students with disabilities
Must have comprehensive evaluation
Requires informed consent
Reevaluation if conditions warrant, request from parent/teacher, or every three years
If parents disagree with first evaluation, district must pay for second opinion
Must include: Referral, Assessment, Modifications, Accommodations
Ex: Student with autism assigned an aide for classroom work, paid for by district

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Intended to protect the privacy of a medical patient’s identifiable health records. Requires signed release for information to be shared.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
Protects a student’s educational records and is specific to educational institutions that receive federal funding.

Title IX of the Education Amendments
Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, national origin, or sex in programs or activities that receive federal funding.
Cannot discriminate in the following ways:
Appraisal and counseling materials
Testing instruments
Internal control
Disproportionate classes

Title II and Perkins Act
Gives funding to post-secondary institutions for preparing students to be competitive in world economy.
Ex: Tech programs

Group Counseling Benefits
Natural interpesonal context for students
Creates safe context w/n which students can practice interpersonal skills and get feedback
Allow students to hear form others with similar experiences
Allow many more student to be served by counselor then in one-on-one activities

Group Counseling Stages
1. Orientation (forming)
2. Power struggle (storming)
3. Cooperation and integration (norming)
4. Synergy (performing)
5. Closure (adjourning)

Group Counseling Facilitator’s Role
Encourage group development of expression, exploration, and self-disclosure, to discourage dynamics that hinder expression and openness and to model healthy, appropriate interpersonal communication

Career development theories
Trait Factor
Holland’s Career Typology

Trait Factor Theory
Occupational decision making occurs when:
A person has an accurate understanding of their traits (aptitudes, interests, personal abilities)
A knowledge of jobs and the labor market
An objective judgement about the relationship between their individual traits and the labor market.
Ex: True Colors

Holland’s Career Typology
Personalities fall into 6 categories, certain careers suit certain personalities
1. Realistic
2. Investigative
3. Artistic
4. Social
5. Enterprising
6. Conventional
Ex: Strong Interest Inventory

Self-knowledge is important as we take on career to express and understand ourselves.
Career development is cyclic
1. Growth
2. Exploration
3. Establishment
4. Maintenance
5. Disengagement

Triadic process through which the consultant (counselor) assists the consultee in his relationship with someone else.
Ex: Counselor helps a teacher with a student

Behavioral Consultation Approach
school counselor actively obtains and evaluates student data, which is used to advise other staff members (such as teachers) how to best help the student. With a behavioral consultation approach, it is a triadic consultation (among counselor, teacher and student), and is considered depended because the counselee (teacher) relies on the school counselor to collect and interpret the behavioral data.

Process that takes consultation a step further. The consultant (counselor) takes at least a partial responsibility for implementing the plan made through the consultation.
Ex: The counselor who has consulted with a teacher about a student behavior might also work directly with the student.

Consultation and Collaboration Roles
Advisor- Offers suggestions and expertise
Advocate- Provides support and acts on behalf of other party
Collaborator- Participates as team member
Facilitator- Leads group
Mediator- Provides conflict resolution framework

Consultation Types

3 person relationship with consultant (counselor) indirectly bringing about change in the student through direct services with the consultee, usually the parent or teacher. The consultant is contributing expertise.

The constant (counselor) facilitates the problem-solving process while establishing mutual goals and agreed on interventions with the consultee who then delivers the intervention. BOTH the consultant and consultee are contributing expertise.

Team approach with consultant facilitating the process as well as contributing expertise as one of its members.

Intervention Levels
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary

Primary Intervention
Designed to keep problems from emerging.
For students without serious behavior problems.
Ex: Violence prevention program

Secondary Intervention
Designed to reverse or preclude harm from exposure to risk factors
For students at risk for problems behaviors
Ex: Adult mentors

Tertiary Intervention
Designed to reduce, rather than reverse, harm among the most severely involved individuals.
For students with chronic/intense behavior problems
Ex: Individual or family counseling services

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Albert Ellis (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy technique)
A= Activating Event
B= Belief
C= Conclusion
Ex: Student doing poorly in math because he believes he is unable to understand it.

Reality Therapy
William Glasser
Based on Choice Theory (the need to love and belong being most important)
Help clients learn better ways to fulfill their needs
1. Present behavior is not getting them what they want.
2. Humans are motivated to change when they believe they can choose other behaviors that will get them closer to what they want.
Counselor is positive and instills hope in client.
W= Wants and needs
D= Direction and doing
E= Self-evaluation
P= Planning

Choice Theory
All human need survival, love and belonging, power or achievement, freedom or independence, and fun

Counseling, collaborating, consulting
Counseling= Direct service
Consultation= Indirect service, systemic approach aimed at individuals or groups
Collaboration= Indirect service, working as a team to solve problem

4 Step Behavioral Model
Used in triadic dependent consultation
1. Define (look at environmental conditions that maintain the problem)
2. Generate solutions for behavior change and social context change.
3. Implement the plan
4. Evaluate the plan.

Crisis Incident Stress Management
1) Introduction: discuss confidentiality, ground rules
2) Fact Phase: talk about known facts, dispel rumors
3) Thought Phase: reflect upon immediate thoughts
4) Reaction Phase: identify most traumatic aspect of event, discuss emotions, provide validation/support
5) Symptom Phase: return participants to cognitive processing of event, identify possible symptoms
6) Teaching Phase: relate symptoms to reactions, normalize reactions, emphasize symptoms should get better, look for positive reactions to event (e.g., “Is there anything positive that you
think has come of this?”).
7) Closure/Re-Entry: final opportunity to summarize event and identify supports (peer, family, community).

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