Praxis II School Psychology

Post traumatic stress disorder
After a traumatic event, symptoms are intrusive memories, avoiding emotional triggers, emotional numbness, and arousal
Genuineness
Therapist honestly communicates emotions and experiences
Lev Vygotsky
Believed that COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS DEPENDENT ON INTERACTIONS WITH OTHERS
Classical Conditioning
The process by which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus
Unconditional Stimulus (US)
Term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning
Unconditioned Response (UR)
A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response (CR)
Term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus
Extinction
When a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response disappears
Higher-Order Conditioning
A procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus though association with an already established conditioned stimulus. → May contribute to the formation of prejudices
Watson
Recognized the implication of Pavlonian theory and founded American behaviorism. Watson believed that most fears are conditioned responses to stimuli that were originally neutral. Demonstrated that phobias can be taught (Little Albert being taught to be afraid of a rat)
OPERARANT CONDITIONING
A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences. Generally, responses in operant conditioning are complex and not reflexive
B.F. Skinner
Skinner believed that people learn to act deliberately on their environments in order to bring about desired consequences. What we need to know to understand behavior are the external causes of an action and the action’s consequences. Thus, he avoided assumptions about what an organism feels
Thorndike’s Law of Effect
Correct responses after trial and errors become “stamped in” when receive satisfying effect
Neutral Consequences
neither increases or decreases the probability that a behavior will recur
Reinforcement
The process by which a stimulus strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows
Punishment
The process by which a stimulus or event weakens the response that it follows, reducing the probability of a response
Positive Reinforcement
A procedure in which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a pleasant stimulus (thus, response becomes stronger and more likely to occur)
Negative Reinforcement
A procedure in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus (thus, response becomes stronger or more likely to occur)
Positive Punishment
When a response is followed by the presentation of or increase in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus (thus, response is less likely to occur)
Brown v. Board of Education
The assignment of African-American children to separate and inferior public schools is a denial of equal protection under the 14th amendment. So, each state must provide equal educational opportunity to all children within its jurisdiction regardless of race
Pennsylvania Assocation for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1971, 1972), and Mills v. Board of Education (1972)
found that exclusion of children with handicaps from public school is a denial of equal protection. Thus, states have a duty to provide equal educational opportunities to all children regardless of race, color, national origin, native language, sex, and disability under the 14th amendment
Procedural due process
This means that a state cannot take away life, liberty, or property rights without some sort of procedural fairness to safeguard citizens from unfair or wrongful infringement of rights
Goss v. Lopez, (1975)
the Supreme Court held that education is a property right protected by the 14th Amendment. Thus, schools may not:
1.Suspend or expel children without some sort of fair, impartial due process procedures
2. Schools may not label children (mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed – change of placement or label) without due process
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
provides financial assistance to schools with high concentrations of children from disadvantaged homes. It requires statewide reading and mathematics tests each year in grades 3-8, starting in 2005-2006. Each school must attain academic proficiency for all students in 12 years, and document progress toward that goal
Individuals w/ Disabilities Education Act Used to be the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA. L. No. 94-142)
The reauthorization of IDEA in 1997 (Pub. L. No. 105-117). IDEA-Part B allocates funds to states that provide a free and appropriate education to all children with disabilities. In order to receive funds, each state must have developed a plan to ensure that every child with disabilities receives special education and related services in conformance with an IEP. Must use nondiscriminatory testing and evaluation procedures and provide the least restrictive environment (LRE) feasible. IDEA-Part C provides funds to states that offer early intervention services/programs for infants and toddlers with known or suspected disabilities in conformance with an individualized family service plan (IFSP)
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA)
Under FERPA, NO federal funds will be made available to schools unless they adhere to the pupil record-keeping procedures outlined in the law, to ensure confidentiality. Parents have access to all official school records, the right to challenge the accuracy of the records, and a right to a hearing regarding their accuracy. The records are to be available only to those in the school setting with a legitimate educational interest, and parent consent must be obtained before records are released to agencies outside of the school
The Protection of Pupil Rights Act
Need written parental consent before a pupil can be required to submit to a survey, analysis, or evaluation that reveals certain types of personal information
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 SECTION 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (Pub. L. No. 93-112)
prohibits discrimination against any qualified individual solely on the basis of a handicapping condition
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
ADA is one of the most significant federal law ensuring equal opportunity to individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodation, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Parents of children with MR brought suit against the state of Penn in federal court because their children were denied access to public education. The court ordered that the children have access to public school programs, and ordered comprehensive changes in policy and practices. This marked the beginning of a redefinition of education in this country to include training of children with disabilities toward self-sufficiency
Mills v. Board of Education (1972)
This was a lawsuit filed on behalf of seven children with behavioral, emotional, and learning impairments in Washington D.C. → The court order reiterated many of the requirements in P.A.R.C. and required schools to provide each handicapped child with a free and suitable publicly supported education regardless of disability or impairment. After PARC and Mills, 36 right-to-education cases were filed, signaling to Congress that federal laws were needed to ensure educational opportunities for all children with disabilities
Zero Reject Principle
States must actively locate and evaluate children with disabilities and provide them will full educational opportunities regardless of the severity of the disability
Stay-Put Rule
Unless parents and the school agree, students remain in his or her present placement during any due process proceeding
Hobson v. Hansen (1967, 1969)
African American and poor children were disproportionally assigned to the lower tracks based on group-administered aptitude tests. Ruled that tracking was a violation of equal protection laws
Diana v. State Board of Education (1970)
class action filed on behalf of 9 Mexican American children placed in classes for the educable mentally retarded. One girl scored a 30 and then when retested later in Spanish had a 79. Ruled that children be assessed in their primary language or with sections of tests that do not depend on knowledge of English
Guadalupe Organization, Inc. v. Tempe Elementary School District (1972)
Class action lawsuit on behalf of Yaqui Indian and Mexican American pupils. This ruling went further than Diana by requiring a multifaceted evaluation that included assessment of adaptive behavior and an interview with the parents in determining eligibility for MR in addition to assessment in the child’s primary language or the use of nonverbal measures
Larry P. v. Riles (1984)
Class action suit on behalf of African American pupils placed in classes for MR. The school district was unable to convince the court that IQ tests were valid for the purpose of placing African American children in MR classes. During the second phase, the judge found that IQ tests were racially and culturally discriminatory. The judge permanently forbid the state from using standardized intelligence tests to identify African American children without permission from the court or for any special education program except state-supported gifted and talented program. Then the judge later ordered that AA children can be given IQ tests with parent consent, although the California State Department of Education continued to prohibit its use
P.A.S.E. v. Hannon (1980)
Judge decided that the use of IQ tests within the context of a multifaceted assessment process as outlined in IDEA was not likely to result in racially or culturally discriminatory classification decisions. Based his decision by reading aloud every question and correct answer on the WISC, WISC-R, and Stanford-Binet
The IEP team is composed of
*The parents
*At least one regular education teacher of the child
*At least one special education teacher
*A representative of the LEA who is qualified to provide, or supervise the provision of specially designed instruction, knowledgeable about the curriculum, and knowledgeable about the availability of resources of the LEA
*At the discretion of the parent or the LEA, other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise
*If appropriate, the child
*If private school placement is under consideration, a representative of the private school must participate in some what in the meeting (attend or telephone conference call)
Grade retention
A number of studies have found no lasting beneficial effect of grade retention, and may be detrimental in terms of self-concept, and personal and social adjustment. The method for assignment to a particular grade must be reasonably related to the purpose of providing appropriate instruction and furthering education
Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP)
Either before or not later than 10 days after either first removing a child for more than 10 school days or commencing a removal that constitutes a change of placement, the school must convene an IEP team meeting. If a BIP already existed prior to the disciplinary action, the IEP team is required to review the plan and modify it to address the problem behavior. If NO BIP existed, the school must convene an IEP team meeting to develop an assessment plan, conduct a functional behavioral assessment, and implement a BIP
Manifest Determination Review
must be conducted when: (1) a disciplinary action is contemplated as a result of weapons, drugs, or potential injury to self or others(2) if a disciplinary action involves a change of placement for more than 10 days for a child with a disability who engaged in behavior that violated school rules or codes
Child Find
IDEA-Part C requires each state to establish a public awareness program and a child find system to ensure that eligible children are identified and referred for evaluation
Due Process
IDEA-Part B grants parents and the school a right to an impartial due process hearing. It must be conducted by the SEA by a “hearing officer.” The hearing must be held and a final decision reached within 45 days after the request for a hearing
Carl Rogers
Believed that all people have a need for positive regard that results from an underlying wish to be loved and respected. Because other people provide this positive regard, we are dependent on others and our view of ourselves and our self-worth is a reflection of how we think others view us
HUMANISTIC THEORY
This perspective contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior. Each individual has the ability and motivation to reach more advanced levels of maturity, and people naturally seek to reach their full potential .Emphasis on Free Will – the ability of humans to make choices and come to decisions about their lives
Client-centered case consultation
The consultant functions as a specialist who assesses the client, makes a diagnosis, and makes recommendations as to how the consultee (often a teacher) might modify his or her dealings with the client (often a student). Focuses on developing a plan that will help a specific client. The primary goal is to advise the consultee regarding treatment and to develop a plan to deal with the client’s difficulties. Usually the consultant meets with the consultee’s client to help diagnose a problem. The consultant is responsible for assessing problem and prescribing course of action. Implementation of the consultant’s recommendations is the responsibility of the consultee
Consultee-centered case consultation
This type of consultation is most closely identified with Caplan. Like the client-centered consultation, this is concerned with difficulties a consultee encounters with a particular client for whom he or she has responsibility. Primary goal is to remediate the shortcomings in the consultee’s professional functioning that are responsible for difficulties, with client improvement a secondary goal. Thus, there is little or no direct assessment of the client
Program-centered administrative consultation
This is similar to client-centered case consultation because the consultant is viewed as a specialist who is called in to study a problem and provide a set of recommendations for dealing with a problem Difference – The consultant is concerned with problems surrounding the development of a new program or some aspect of organizational functioning. Usually very rapid-paced and over quickly
Consultee-centered administrative consultation
The goal of consultee-centered administrative consultation is to improve the professional functioning of members of an administrative staff. The consultatnt agrees to work with the organization on a long-term basis
Bergan and Kratochwill’s behavioral-operant Consultation model
defines consultation as an indirect, problem-solving service involving a collegial relationship between the consultant and consultee in which the consultant acquires and communicates psychological data that will enable the consultee to utilize the data. Relies upon a complex communications model to elicit the information needed and includes a series of specific recommendations regarding problem identification and resolution. Bergan and Kratochwill view the consultant as an AUTHORITY FIGURE WHO ASSUMES PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CONSULTING RELATIONSHIP. Also, they focus on changing BEHAVIORS
Premack principle
Using high probability behavior (e.g. Listening to music) as reinforcer for low probability behavior (e.g., doing homework)
Systematic Desensitization
Eliminating phobic response by either pairing them with a neutral stimulus such as a relaxed physical state or by gradually exposing persons with phobias to the stimulus that prefaces the phobic response
Self-monitoring
A procedure engaged by and individual with problematic behavior for the purpose of (1) identifying the parameters of the difficulty, or (2) monitoring their progress toward some preset goal
Cognitive Restructuring
Involves identifying current thoughts that either precede, occurring during, or follow a problem situation, and replace them with more appropriate thoughts. Relies on cognitive modeling and feedback
Erikson’s Stages of Development
1. Trust vs. mistrust (Birth to 12-18 months)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (12-18 months to 3 years)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 years to 5-6 years
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (5-6 years to adolescence)
5. Identity vs. role diffusion (Adolescence)
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Early adulthood)
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle adulthood)
8. Ego-Integrity vs. Despair (Late adulthood)
Social-cognitive learning theory
In other words, we learn by observing the behavior of another person, called a model (bobo doll versus tinker toy experiment)
Negative Punishment
When a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of a pleasant stimulus (response is less likely to occur)
Primary Reinforcers and Punishers
A stimulus that is inherently reinforcing or punishing, typically associated with a physiological need or response (reinforcer = food, punishment = electric shock)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
a condition that sometimes develops in the aftermath of a specific stressful, traumatic event. The disorder exceeds 1 month and involves re-occurring memories of the trauma. Other symptoms includes are emotional withdrawal, intrusive memories, emotional numbing, and increased physiological arousal
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The TAT is made for individuals 10 and older. The Thematic Apperception Test is a projective measure in which a subject will project his current feelings and issues unto ten, examiner chosen, ambiguous pictures. These pictures are designed to stimulate descriptions about relationships and social situations. The subject will describe his personal feelings on these themes, and the examiner will look for recurrent drives, emotions, conflicts, and complexes
Children’s Apperception Test (CAT)
The Children’s Apperception Test (CAT) is made for children 3- 11. The Children’s Apperception Test is a projective measure in which a child will project his current feelings and issues by telling stories about ten pictures of animals in various settings. Pictures are designed to assess personality, level of maturity, and psychological health
Steps in “Problem Solving” consultation
1. Define the problem
2. Analyze the problem
3. Plan an intervention
4. Evaluate your ourcome
Reliability
The ability of a test to produce similar results over time
validity
A test’s ability to measure what its purpose is to measure
Type I Error
When you say something is true but it is not (rejecting the null hypothesis)
Type II Error
Stating something is false, but it is really true (accepting a Null hypothesis)
T-score
*Hint: do not confuse T-score with standard scores Has a mean of 50 and an SD of 10
Z-score
Has a mean of 0 and a SD of 1
Least Restrictive Environment
Under the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) of 1975 children with disabilities are to be placed in the least restrictive environment (LRE) possible. This basically means that each individual disabled child must be placed in regular classrooms as much as their disability permits. It is important to remember that LRE is a concept and not a place
Mean of T Score
50
Correlation Coefficient
A Statistical measure of relationship …… does not show CAUSATION. It shows if two sets of data are related. The Pearson r is the most commonly used tool to predict the correlation, on interval and ratio data Correlation Coefficient can range from +1 ( positive correlation ) to – 1 ( negative correlation ). When a correlation exists, by knowing one score you can predict another score most of the time
Regression
Major purpose of testing is prediction and Regression is the primary statistical tool for this purpose. Regression analysis provides an equation that DESCRIBES the RELATIONSHIP between the two variables
The range of Standard deviation scores
-3 to + 3
Standard Scores or Standardized Scores
These scores express a person’s distance from the mean, in terms of standard deviation of the distribution. They are continuous and have equality of units and allow for comparison between individuals
Zero Reject
This is a principle that requires the school to provide a free appropriate public education to all students with disabilities. Zero reject prohibits denial of any student’s right to education. That is, it is a rule that provides that, although a student may be disciplined, the student may not be subjected to any cessation of educational services. For example, even if a student is properly expelled from a school, the school district must continue to educate the student, although in another setting
Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
All evaluations provided by the school must be fair, nondiscriminatory, and appropriate for the child’s needs. All evaluations must be considered, (even ones paid for by the parents outside of the school.)
Appropriate education
Every student has a right to an Individualized Education Plan. This plan is to assure specified outcomes for the student, namely equal opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency and, while in school, access to the general curriculum and, where appropriate, advanced placement courses or a vocational educational program. Least restrictive environment: This principle guarantees that a child will be educated with same-age peers in the general curriculum to the maximum extent possible
Procedural Due Process
The fifth principle is known as the safeguards. These safeguards assure that the school is providing the services and placements required. This principle also requires team decision-making concerning the student’s education
Parent and Student Participation
This principle requires parent and school participation in team decision-making. This law ensures provision of legally required services
Least Restrictive Environment
a relative idea that must be determined individually for each student. The LRE is determined not by the student’s disability, but by his or her educational needs. Also, the classroom the pupil is placed in must meet the special needs of the student as well as the others in the classroom. LRE entitles the student to maximum interaction and involvement with non-disabled students while still giving the exceptional student a quality education
The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT)
The UNIT is a test without language, made for kids 5-17.11 years old. This test requires the use of sign language and other hand gestures. Kids who don’t know English are going to like it! So are the children in speech and language
Resource Rooms
has historically been one of the most common service delivery models for students with disabilities. Resource rooms are where students with disabilities receive special instruction and services while normal students stay in separate classes. In 1992, over half of all disabled students spent a significant period of the school day in a resource room. But in the mid 90’s there was a shift from resource rooms to more inclusive programs
FAPE
free appropriate education, says that all children are entitled to an adequate free education despite how severe their disabilities may be
Brown v. Board of Education
the 1954 landmark school desegregation case, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka stated that segregation is unequal. *Overturned “Plessy v. Ferguson “Separate but Equal” ruling
Diana v. State board of Eduction
Found schools are to give assessments in Child’s native language. *Nonverbal assessments may also be used
Debra P. v. Turlington
Schools must prove that they have educated a student sufficiently before they can be given a graduation test
Procedural due process
The fifth principle is known as the safeguards. These safeguards assure that the school is providing the services and placements required. This principle also requires team decision-making concerning the student’s education. Parent and Student Participation: This principle requires parent and school participation in team decision-making. This law ensures provision of legally required services
The Perkin’s act
Authorizes federal funds to support vocational education programs. It was most recently reauthorized in August 2006 (Public Law 105-332). The purpose of this Act is to provide individuals with the academic and technical skills needed to succeed in a knowledge and skills based economy
Honig v. Doe
Prohibited SPED students from being suspended for more than 10 days. Required manifestation determination. Ensures parental rights with safeguards such as “stay put”
Hobson v. Hansen
Dissolved the tracking system used in conjunction with IQ tests because tests were inaccurate with regard to ethnically and economically diverse populations
Americans with Disabilities Act
forbids discrimination in public and private places against individuals with disabilities. After this act came the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (PL 94-142), which is a considered a “Bill of Rights” and is one of the most important pieces of legislation for exceptional children
Steps involved in the modeling process
(Modeling= think Bandura)
1. Attention.
2. Retention.
3. Reproduction.
4. Motivation
Vicarious reinforcement
seeing and recalling the model being reinforced
Freudian Psychotherapy
Transference, catharsis, and insight
Transference
occurs when a client projects feelings toward the therapist that more legitimately belong with certain important others. Freud felt that transference was necessary in therapy in order to bring the repressed emotions that have been plaguing the client for so long, to the surface. You can’t feel really angry, for example, without a real person to be angry at
Section 504
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a national law that protects qualified individuals from discrimination based on their disability
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Parents of children with MR brought suit against the state of Penn in federal court because their children were denied access to public education. The court ordered that the children have access to public school programs, and ordered comprehensive changes in policy and practices. This marked the beginning of a redefinition of education in this country to include training of children with disabilities toward self-sufficiency
Mills v. Board of Education (1972)
This was a lawsuit filed on behalf of seven children with behavioral, emotional, and learning impairments in Washington D.C. → The court order reiterated many of the requirements in P.A.R.C. and required schools to provide each handicapped child with a free and suitable publicly supported education regardless of disability or impairment. After PARC and Mills, 36 right-to-education cases were filed, signaling to Congress that federal laws were needed to ensure educational opportunities for all children with disabilities
Zero Reject Principle
States must actively locate and evaluate children with disabilities and provide them will full educational opportunities regardless of the severity of the disability
Stay-Put Rule
Unless parents and the school agree, students remain in his or her present placement during any due process proceeding
Hobson v. Hansen (1967, 1969)
African American and poor children were disproportionally assigned to the lower tracks based on group-administered aptitude tests. Ruled that tracking was a violation of equal protection laws
Diana v. State Board of Education (1970)
class action filed on behalf of 9 Mexican American children placed in classes for the educable mentally retarded. One girl scored a 30 and then when retested later in Spanish had a 79. Ruled that children be assessed in their primary language or with sections of tests that do not depend on knowledge of English
Guadalupe Organization, Inc. v. Tempe Elementary School District (1972)
Class action lawsuit on behalf of Yaqui Indian and Mexican American pupils. This ruling went further than Diana by requiring a multifaceted evaluation that included assessment of adaptive behavior and an interview with the parents in determining eligibility for MR in addition to assessment in the child’s primary language or the use of nonverbal measures
Larry P. v. Riles (1984)
Class action suit on behalf of African American pupils placed in classes for MR. The school district was unable to convince the court that IQ tests were valid for the purpose of placing African American children in MR classes. During the second phase, the judge found that IQ tests were racially and culturally discriminatory. The judge permanently forbid the state from using standardized intelligence tests to identify African American children without permission from the court or for any special education program except state-supported gifted and talented program. Then the judge later ordered that AA children can be given IQ tests with parent consent, although the California State Department of Education continued to prohibit its use
P.A.S.E. v. Hannon (1980)
Judge decided that the use of IQ tests within the context of a multifaceted assessment process as outlined in IDEA was not likely to result in racially or culturally discriminatory classification decisions. Based his decision by reading aloud every question and correct answer on the WISC, WISC-R, and Stanford-Binet
The Perkin’s act
Authorizes federal funds to support vocational education programs. It was most recently reauthorized in August 2006 (Public Law 105-332). The purpose of this Act is to provide individuals with the academic and technical skills needed to succeed in a knowledge and skills based economy
Honig v. Doe
Prohibited SPED students from being suspended for more than 10 days. Required manifestation determination. Ensures parental rights with safeguards such as “stay put”
Hobson v. Hansen
Dissolved the tracking system used in conjunction with IQ tests because tests were inaccurate with regard to ethnically and economically diverse populations
Americans with Disabilities Act
forbids discrimination in public and private places against individuals with disabilities. After this act came the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (PL 94-142), which is a considered a “Bill of Rights” and is one of the most important pieces of legislation for exceptional children
Mills v. Board of Education (1972)
This was a lawsuit filed on behalf of seven children with behavioral, emotional, and learning impairments in Washington D.C. → The court order reiterated many of the requirements in P.A.R.C. and required schools to provide each handicapped child with a free and suitable publicly supported education regardless of disability or impairment
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
This (fairly recent) act provides financial assistance to schools with high concentrations of children from disadvantaged homes. It requires statewide reading and mathematics tests each year in grades 3-8, starting in 2005-2006. Each school must attain academic proficiency for all students in 12 years, and document progress toward that goal
SECTION 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
This prohibits discrimination against any qualified individual solely on the basis of a handicapping condition
Rowley v. BOE
Public schools have to provide an adequate education- not the best education (think Chevy not Cadillac)
Individuals w/ Disabilities Education Act
This act allocates funds to states that provide a free and appropriate education to all children with disabilities. In order to receive funds, each state must have developed a plan to ensure that every child with disabilities receives special education and related services in conformance with an IEP. Must use nondiscriminatory testing and evaluation procedures and provide the least restrictive environment (LRE) feasible. Part C provides funds to states that offer early intervention services/programs for infants and toddlers with known or suspected disabilities in conformance with an individualized family service plan (IFSP)
Caplan’s Mental Health Consultation
In his view, maladaptive behavior and psychological disturbance arise because caregivers, family, friends, and community groups within a social system to do not provide sufficient direction, support and stability when an individual is faced with a stressful life event. He believed that mental health consultation is a service to many different professionals to assist them in dealing with the psychological aspects of a current work problem, and, to deal more effectively with similar problems in the future. This type of consultation was developed as a preventative approach to dealing with mental disorders
Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule
Reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses. They produce high rates of responding, although performance drops just after reinforcement (ex., selling a certain number of items before getting commission)
Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedule
Reinforcement occurs after some average number of responses, but the number varies from reinforcement to reinforcement. These produce extremely high, steady rates of responding, and the responses are more resistant to extinction (ex. slot machine)
Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule
Reinforcement occurs only if a fixed amount of time has passed. Not very helpful in real world because after a reinforcer is delivered, often stop responding altogether
Variable-Interval (VI) Schedule
Reinforcement of a response occurs after a variable amount of time has passed. Because the animal or person cannot predict when a reward will come, responding is relatively low but steady.
Secondary Reinforcers and Punishers
A stimulus that has acquired reinforcing or punishing properties through associations with other reinforcers or punishers
Extinction
Is also a term in classical conditioning, meaning the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response in operant conditioning, it occurs when the response is no longer followed by a reinforcer
Continuous Reinforcement
When a response is first acquired, learning is usually most rapid if the response is reinforced each time it occurs – continuous reinforcement
Shaping
An operant conditioning procedure in which successive approximations (behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to a desired response) of a desired response are reinforced. For example, if you want a dog to open the refrigerator, reward to for turning to fridge, reward for touching fridge, reward for grabbing rag on fridge, reward for pulling on rag, etc
Behavior Modification
Conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior. Many behavior modification programs rely on the token economy. Tokens are secondary reinforcers that have no real value in themselves but are exchangeable for primary reinforcers or for other secondary reinforcers
Zone of Proximal Development
the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent
Scaffolding
The support for learning and problems solving that encourages independence and growth. This includes helping children think about and frame a task in an appropriate manner and providing clues to task completion that are appropriate to the child’s level of development
Private Speech
Speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves, and is used to guide behavior and thought. By communicating with themselves through private speech, children are able to try out ideas, acting as their own sounding boards. Vygotsky suggests it facilitates children’s thinking and they use it to help them control their behavior. Peaks around 4 to 7
Piaget v. Vygotsky
The main difference between Piaget and Vygotsky is that Piaget suggests classroom experiences should focus on already existing cognitive structures within the particular stage the child has reached, while Vygotsky argues that cognitive advances can be made through active learning. → Cooperative Learning and Reciprocal Teaching methods have stemmed from Vygotsky’s work
Lev Vygotsky
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS DEPENDENT ON INTERACTIONS WITH OTHERS.
schemes
organized patterns of sensorimotor functioning that adapt and change with mental development through assimilation (understanding experiences within existing patterns of thought) and accommodation (changes in ways of thinking, behaving, and understanding o match novel experiences)
assimilation
understanding experiences within existing patterns of thought
accommodation
changes in ways of thinking, behaving, and understanding o match novel experiences
Mills Case
The court order reiterated many of the requirements in P.A.R.C. and required schools to provide each handicapped child with a free and suitable publicly supported education regardless of disability or impairment. After PARC and Mills, 36 right-to-education cases were filed, signaling to Congress that federal laws were needed to ensure educational opportunities for all children with disabilities
Social History
Report of information gathered and prepared by qualified school district personnel pertaining to the interpersonal, familial and environmental variables which influence a student’s general adaptation to school, including but not limited to data on family composition, family history, developmental history of the student, health of the student, family interaction and school adjustment of the student
SLIC
Acronym for Significant Limited Intellectual Capacity
SIED
Acronym for Significant Identifiable Emotional Disability
Readiness
A child’s “readiness” or maturity level to enter school (usually K)
Fragile X
A family of genetic conditions, which can impact individuals and families in various ways. These genetic conditions are related in that they are all caused by gene changes in the same gene, called the FMR1 gene. The syndrome is the most common cause of inherited mental impairment. This impairment can range from learning disabilities to more severe cognitive or intellectual disabilities (MR). FXS is the most common known cause of autism or “autistic-like” behaviors. Symptoms also can include characteristic physical and behavioral features and delays in speech and language development. (def. from fragilex.org)
Tourettes
A tic disorder. Relaxation training, meds, CBT and social skills training are generally preferred as treatment methods
Four Pillars of Assessment
•Norm-referenced tests
• Interviews
• Observations
• Informal Assessment
Executive Functioning
A broad range of higher-order cognitive processes
6 Major Principles Of IDEA
1. Zero Reject
2. Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
3. Appropriate education
4. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
5. Procedural Due Process/safeguards
6. Parent and Student Participation
Erikson’s stages
Mistrust vs. Trust
Shame vs. Autonomy
Guilt vs. Initiative
Inferiority vs. Industry
Role confusion vs. Identity
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Despair vs. Integrity
Multiple Intelligences/ Howard Gardner
• Verbal-Linguistic
• Logical-Mathematical
• Visual-Spatial
• Body-Kinesthetic
• Musical-Rhythmic
• Interpersonal
• Intrapersonal
Four Broad Ethical Principles in School Psychology
1. Respect for the Dignity of Persons
2. Responsible Caring
3. Integrity in Professional Relationships
4. Responsibility to Community and Society
Rorschach Inkblot Test
Projective technique utilizing ambiguous inkblots as stimuli *has low psychometric reliability
Theory of the Mind
An understanding that other people have different thoughts and feelings (often associated w/ autism spectrum disorders)
Zone of Proximal Development
What Vygotsky called the difference between what a child can do with help and what s/he can do without assistance
Schema
The cognitive structure utilized to make sense of the world. (Def. from allpsych.com)
Mary Ainsworth
“strange situation” The study involved observing children ages 12 – 18 months responding to a situation where they were left alone and then reunited with their mother
Frontal Lobe
• The “Brain Manager”
• Think: Executive Function
• Goal Directed Behavior
• Cognitive Planning
• Broca’s Area located here
• INFO TO KNOW: Damage to Broca’s (or Wernicke’s) area can cause speech/language difficulties known as “Aphasia.” These areas are also associated w/ dyslexia and other LDs
Temporal Lobe
Language Center: controls sound, speech & portion of long term memory
• Processes Auditory Info
• Wernicke’s Area located here
• INFO TO KNOW: Damage to Wernicke’s (or Broca’s) area can cause speech/language difficulties known as “Aphasia.” These areas are also associated w/ dyslexia and other LDs
Occipital Lobe
Controls Visual Processing
Parietal Lobe
Somatosensory Area, Processes bodily sensation & Motor Function- controls orientation and calculations. Also integrates some Info
Cerebellum
Not really considered part of the Cerebral Cortex- rather part of the Hindbrain, Controls muscle tone, balance and skilled movement
Hippocampus
Strong emotional memories and learning, Compares new info to old- consolidates learning and converts info to long term memory during REM sleep
Amygdala
Emotional CenterPlays a role, in affecting emotions and encodes memory with/ emotional tag (if present)
Hypothalamus
Considered “thermostat” of the brain. Influences: sleep, hunger, primary emotions, sex. Associated w/ homeostasis
Thalamus
Sensory “relay station.” Sensory info. such as visual/auditory information evaluated here
Dopamine
Involved in producing positive moods/feelings
• Associated w/ reward & novelty seeking
• Implicated in Parkinson’s & ADHD
Endorphin
Natural opiate (similar to Morphine). Released to ease pain
Serotonin
Regulates relaxation, sleep & mood
• Implicated in depression
Norepinephrine
A neurotransmitter associated with eating and alertness. Too little has been associated with depression and too much has been associated with schizophrenia. (def. from allpsych.com)
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
A condition in 3- and 4-year-olds who have normally developed to age 2. Over several months, a child with this will deteriorate in intellectual, social, and language functioning from previously typical behavior.
Cochlear Implant
A Technological Device intended to enhance the hearing of persons who are deaf
Mental Retardation IQ score descriptors
• 55-69= Mild
• 40-54= Moderate
• Below 40= Severe
Kohlberg’s stages of Moral Development
1. Preconventional (avoidance of punishment)
2. Conventional (where most people are. Social norms and avoidance of disapproval)
3. Post Conventional (high ethics and principles of conscience)
Object Permanence
The realization that an object that can no longer be seen can still exist and reappear (This occurs early during the Preoperational Stage).
IDEA principle: Zero Reject
Requires schools to provide a free appropriate public education to all students with disabilities.
• Prohibits denial of any student’s right to education.
• A student can be disciplined but may not be subjected to an end of educational services.
• Even if a student is expelled – the school district is required to continue to educate the student (can be in another setting though).
IDEA principle: Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
Evaluations by school is required by law to be fair, nondiscriminatory, and appropriate for the student’s needs. Outside evaluations must also be considered.
IDEA principle: Appropriate education
Each student has a right to an Individualized Education Plan that assures specified outcomes for student (i.e. equal opp., full participation, ind. living, and economic self-sufficiency and, while in school, access to the general curriculum and, where appropriate, advanced placement courses or a vocational educational program)
IDEA principle: Least restrictive environment
Guarantees that a student will be educated with same-age peers in the general curriculum to the maximum extent possible.
IDEA principle: Procedural Due Process
Safeguards that assure school is providing services and placements required & requires team decision-making concerning student’s education.
IDEA principle: Parent and Student Participation
Requires parent and school participation in team decision-making.
Standard Deviation
Differences from the Average (mean). Plus/Minus 1 generally reflects 68% of a population *Hint: to identify MR- adaptive and IQ scores should be 2 below the mean
Factorial ANOVA
An Analysis of Variance used when there are two or more independent variables. When there are two, the ANOVA is called a Two-Way ANOVA, three independent variables would use a Three-Way ANOVA, etc. (Def. from allpsych.com)
Reliability
The ability of a test to produce similar results over time
Validity
A test’s ability to measure what its purpose is to measure
Type I Error
When you say something is true but it is not (rejecting the null hypothesis)
Type II Error
Stating something is false, but it is really true (accepting a Null hypothesis)
T-score
*Hint: do not confuse T-score with standard scores Has a mean of 50 and an SD of 10
Z-score
Has a mean of 0 and a SD of 1
Deviation IQ
The modern, statistical conception of IQ, introduced by psychologist David Wechsler (1896-1981), according to which IQ is a normally distributed variable with a mean of 100 and an SD of 15 (usually)
Ratio IQ
The original but now obsolete conception of IQ as a ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA).
True Experimental design
Employ both a control group and a means to measure the change that occurs in both groups.
• Attempt to control for all confounding variables, or at least consider their impact
Quasi Experimental design
A study that has most of the trappings of an experiment, but which is unable to control potential factors, or perhaps is not guided by an idea of what all the factors are.
Random Sampling
the selection of a random sample: each element of the population has an equal chance of been selected
Stratified Random Sampling
Involves dividing your population into homogeneous subgroups and then taking a simple random sample in each subgroup
Correlation Coefficient
A Statistical measure of relationship …… does not show CAUSATION. It shows if two sets of data are related. The Pearson r is the most commonly used tool to predict the correlation, on interval and ratio data Correlation Coefficient can range from +1 ( positive correlation ) to – 1 ( negative correlation ). When a correlation exists, by knowing one score you can predict another score most of the time.
The range of Standard deviation scores
-3 to + 3
Standard Scores or Standardized Scores
These scores express a person’s distance from the mean, in terms of standard deviation of the distribution. They are continuous and have equality of units and allow for comparison between individuals.
Criterion Measurement
NOT based on bell (normal) curve- but on specific content to be mastered (used in self-paced studies)
WISC-IV
• Ages 6-17
• Measures child’s IQ
• Verbal, nonverbal (perceptual), processing speed and working memory & overall IQ
Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition
(Bayley-III)
Developmental assessment for ages 1-42 months
• Measures developmental delays in the very young
• Scores on Mental, psychomotor and behavior scales
• Does not correlate well with later intelligence scales
WAIS-III
Ages 17+
• Measures IQ
• Verbal, nonverbal (perceptual), processing speed and working memory & overall IQ
Stanford-Binet-V
• Ages 2-adult
• 1st IQ test
• Verbal, nonverbal & memory
VMI
• Ages 2-15
• Test of visual motor integration
• 24 geometric forms- pencil/paper copy tasks
Cooperative learning
A successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement
Self-monitoring
A procedure engaged by and individual with problematic behavior for the purpose of (1) identifying the parameters of the difficulty, or (2) monitoring their progress toward some preset goal
Behavior Modification
Conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior. Many behavior modification programs rely on the token economy. Tokens are secondary reinforcers that have no real value in themselves but are exchangeable for primary reinforcers or for other secondary reinforcers
Grade Retention
A number of studies have found no lasting beneficial effect of this educational decision, and the effects may be detrimental in terms of self-concept, and personal and social adjustment
Flexible grouping
Teaching strategy: Informally grouping and regrouping students in a variety of ways throughout the school day according to specific goals, activities, and individual needs. Dynamics and advantages must be considered.
Shaping
An operant conditioning procedure in which successive approximations (behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to a desired response) of a desired response are reinforced. For example, if you want a dog to open the refrigerator, reward to for turning to fridge, reward for touching fridge, reward for grabbing rag on fridge, reward for pulling on rag, etc.
Extinction
A term in classical conditioning, meaning the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response in operant conditioning, it occurs when the response is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
Differentiated Instruction
Using varied methods of instruction to accommodate and engage a variety of learners
Scaffolding
The support for learning and problems solving that encourages independence and growth. This includes helping children think about and frame a task in an appropriate manner and providing clues to task completion that are appropriate to the child’s level of development.
Assistive Technology
Schools must ensure that these devices and services are made available to a child with a disability if the child requires the devices to receive an appropriate public education.
Accommodations
Changes in the environment, such as letting a student use a quiet room to take a test
Modifications
Actually changing a task to perform i.e. providing a “word bank”
Metacognition
The awareness of your own though processes and the efficient use of this knowledge to self-regulate these cognitive processes.
Short Term Memory
The stage of memory where information is stored for up to 30 seconds prior to either being forgotten or transferred to long term memory.
Wernicke’s Aphasia
Aphasia resulting from damage to the Wernicke’s area of the frontal lobe. Affects written and spoken language.
(def. from allpsych.com)
Somatic Nervous System
Sub system of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Primary function is to regulate the actions of the skeletal muscles.
(def. from allpsych.com)
High Quality Instruction
Underlying assumption: all students receiving 90 minutes+ or reading instruction in addition to math & science by highly qualified teachers that differentiate instruction to accommodate a variety of students
Universal Screening
Assess all students (using CBM or other formal/informal measures) to access the students who may be “At Risk” for falling below expectations
Positive Behavior Support
Instead of using a patchwork of individual behavioral management plans, a continuum of positive behavior support for all students within a school is implemented in areas including the classroom and nonclassroom settings (such as hallways, restrooms).
Changing Criterion Design
• Begins w/ baseline period of observation.
• Then experimental contingency is introduced so a certain level of performance is required to earn a R+
• When behavior meets or exceeds criterion- criterion is made more stringent
• Criterion is then changed until goal is met
AB Design
A single subject research design that contains one baseline (A) and one treatment (B).
ABAB Design
A single subject research design that contains a baseline (A1), treatment (B1), a second baseline (B2) and a second treatment phase (B2)
Developmental Delay
A tentative diagnosis for Infants and Preschoolers rather than MR, as IQ and adaptive measures are often questionable with very young children.
Observer Drift
Occurs when there is an unintentional, systematic change in definition of behavior being observed
KeyMath 3 Diagnostic Assessment (KeyMath 3 DA)
A single-subject comprehensive assessment of mathematical concepts and skills. It is designed for children and young adults between the ages of 5-22 and takes 35-50 minutes to deliver.
David W. Barnett
ETHNIC VALIDITY MODEL! Developed a framework for helping school psych’s conduct culturally relevant practice. Uses a problem solving model that considers cultural differences.
Robert Selman’s neo-Piagetian theory
• Undifferentiated perspective-taking
Age: 3-6
• Social-informational perspective-taking
Age: 5-9
• Self-reflective perspective-taking
Age: 7-12
• Third-party perspective-taking
Age: 10-15
• Societal perspective-taking
Age: 14-Adult
Dodge’s model of social exchange
A social cognition theory that has adopted tenets of information processing. Social info must be -> encoded -> compared-> retrieved.
Karl Slaikeu “psychological first aid”
1. Make contact with the victim- give him/her permission to express feelings and thoughts
2. Explore problem: past/ present & future
3. ID possible solutions
4. take definite steps to assist
5.Provide follow-up assistance
The Report of the National Reading Panel and Put Reading First
address 5 components of effective reading programs
1. phonemic awareness
2. phonics
3. fluency
4. vocabulary
5. text comprehension
3 forms of behavior rehearsal
1. covert rehearsal (i.e. visualizing)
2. overt rehearsal (i.e. acting out scenario)
3. verbal rehearsal
Neurotransmitters implicated in the pathology of ADHD
Imbalances of dopamine and norepinephrine have been implicated in pathology of ADHD
Functional family therapy (FFT)
An integrated approach to treatment that relies on systems, behavioral, and cognitive views of dysfunction
L.L Thurstone’s 7 primary abilities
1. verbal comp.
2. word fluency
3. number facility
4. spatial visualization
5. associative memory
6. reasoning
7. perceptual speed
Robert Sternberg
Divides intelligence into 3 dimensions:
Componential, experiential, and contextual
Secondary prevention approaches
Focus on students who have been identified as at-risk. Typically administered in small groups or individually
Localization of function
The degree of which different parts of the brain are dedicated to performing specific cognitive functions
FERPA definition of educational records
Records, files, documents, and other materials that contain information directly related to a student and are maintained by an educational agency or institution, or by a person acting for such an agency or institution
Childhood Disintegration Disorder
A condition occurring in 3- and 4-year-olds who have developed normally to age 2. Over several months, a child with this may deteriorate in intellectual, social, and language functioning from previously normal behavior.
LEITER-R
Totally nonverbal measure of intelligence created for children ages 2-21 years. Useful for children with cognitive difficulties, children with speech and language delays, or children who are speakers of another language.
MASLOW Hierarchy of Needs – High to low
Self Actualization
Self Esteem
Belonging=
Safety Needs
Physiological
The Protection of Pupil Rights Act
Need written parental consent before a pupil can be required to submit to a survey, analysis, or evaluation that reveals certain types of personal information.
5 Memory Lanes
Semantic – Episodic – Procedural – Automatic – Emotional
Semantic Memory
Hold info. Learned from words. *Classroom situations rely heavily on this type of memory.
Must be stimulated by associations, comparisons and similarities—it can easily fail us
Episodic Memory
Deals with location. We remember info. Because it is related to location. Also called contextual or spatial memory.
*Think: everyone remembers where they were when they found out about 9/11
**Students who learn in one room and are tested in another often score lower than students who are taught and tested in the same location
Procedural Memory
Often referred to as “muscle memory”. Deals with processes that the body does and remembers.
*Think: Ability to ride a bike or skip rope
**Sequences that are consistently repeated (think of tying a shoe) are stored in procedural memory
Automatic Memory
Sometimes called conditioned response memory. Stimuli automatically trigger the memory for information. For example, after you hear a few words of a song you know, you may begin to sing the song.
*Contains multiplication tables and decoding skills (but not comprehension skills).
Emotional Memory
The most powerful kind of memory. Opened through the amygdala.
*The brain always gives priority to emotions- so if your emotional memory takes over, you may lose logic
**Emotional memories may cause the release of stress hormones that will “change” your mind
4 Major Behavior Therapy Methods for Fear Reduction in Children
• Systematic Desensitization
• Contingency Management
• Modeling
• Cognitive-Behavioral interventions
Side Effects associated with Stimulant Medication
Most frequent include insomnia and decreased appetite.
More severe (but less frequent) symptoms include somatic symptoms, increased tension, growth inhibition and increases in heart rate and blood pressure
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
1. Preconventional Level (up to age nine):
~Self Focused Morality~
2. Conventional Level (age nine to adolescence):
~Other Focused Morality~
3. Postconventional Level (adulthood):
~Higher Focused Morality~
Amygdala
A part of the brain’s limbic system that attaches emotional significance to information and mediates both defensive and aggressive behavior
Analysis of Variance/ ANOVA
An inferential statistical procedure used to test whether or not the means of two or more sets of data are equal to each other.
Attribution Theory
The theory that argues people look for explanation of behavior, associating either dispositional (internal) attributes or situational (external) attributes.
Authoritarian [parents]
Parenting style focused on excessive rules, rigid belief systems, and the expectation of unquestioned obedience.
Authoritative [parents]
Parenting style focused on setting reasonable rules and expectations while encouraging communication and independence
Broca’s Aphasia
An aphasia associated with damage to the Broca’s area of the brain, demonstrated by the impairment in producing understandable speech.
Bell-Shaped Curve
Also referred to as a normal distribution or normal curve, a bell-shaped curve is a perfect mesokurtic curve where the mean, median, and mode are equal.
Behavior Modification
The application of behavioral theory to change a specific behavior.
Behavior Therapy
The application of behavioral theory (e.g. conditioning, reinforcement) in the treatment of mental illness.
Cerebellum Part of the brain associated with balance, smooth movement, and posture.
Classical Conditioning
The behavioral technique of pairing a naturally occurring stimulus and response chain with a different stimulus in order to produce a response which is not naturally occurring
Client Centered Therapy
A humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger’s beliefs that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Treatment involving the combination of behaviorism (based on the theories of learning) and cognitive therapy (based on the theory that our cognitions or thoughts control a large portion of our behaviors).
Cognitive Therapy
The treatment approach based on the theory that our cognitions or thoughts control a large part of our behaviors and emotions. Therefore, changing the way we think can result in positive changes in the way we act and feel.
Cohort Effects
The effects of being born and raised in a particular time or situation where all other members of your group has similar experiences that make your group unique from other groups
Concrete Operational Stage
According to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development where a child between the ages of 7 and 12 begins thinking more globally and outside of the self but is still deficient in abstract thought.
Continuous Reinforcement
The application of reinforcement every time a specific behavior occurs
Counterconditioning
The use of conditioning to eliminate a previously conditioned response. The conditioned stimulus (CS) is repaired with a different unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to eventually elicit a new conditioned response (CR)
Dopamine
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain’s pleasure and reward system.
Double Blind Study
Research method in which both the subjects and the experimenter are unaware or ‘blind’ to the anticipated results.
Endorphins
A neurotransmitter involved in pain relief, and feelings of pleasure and contentedness
Epinephrine
A neurotransmitter involved in energy and glucose metabolism. Too little has been associated with depression.
Family Therapy
Treatment involving family members which seeks to change the unhealthy familial patterns and interactions.
Fixed Interval Schedule
A schedule in which the reinforcement is presented after a specific period of time.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which the reinforcement is presented after a specific number of responses.
Flooding
A behavioral technique used to treat phobias in which the client is presented with the feared stimulus until the associated anxiety disappears
GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid)
A neurotransmitter involved in the inhibition of anxiety and excitation. Too little GABA has been associated with anxiety disorders
Higher Order Conditioning
Pairing a second conditioned stimulus with the first conditioned stimulus in order to produce a second conditioned response
Hippocampus
Part of the limbic system. Involved more in memory, and the transfer of information from short-term to long-term memory.
Hypothalamus
A part of the brain that controls the autonomic nervous system, and therefore maintains the body’s homeostasis (controls body temperature, metabolism, and appetite. Also translates extreme emotions into physical responses
Hawthorne Effect
The phenomenon that subject behavior changes by the mere fact that they are being observed.
Independent Variable
The variable in an experiment that is manipulated or compared.
Jung, Carl
A student of Freud who split from the Psychoanalytic Society because of his disagreements with Freud, especially his view of the collective unconscious
Law of Effect
Theory proposed by Thorndike stating that those responses that are followed by a positive consequence will be repeated more frequently than those that are not.
Learned Helplessness
A condition that occurs after a period of negative consequences where the person begins to believe they have no control
Negative Skew
A curve or distribution of scores that has extreme scores below the mean that are atypical of the majority of scores
Ordinal Scale
Any scale that reflects only magnitude but does not contain equal intervals or an absolute zero
Primary Reinforcer
A reinforcer that meets our basic needs such as food, water, sleep, or love.
Psychoanalytic Theory
Theory developed by Freud consisting of the structural model of personality, topographical model of personality, defense mechanisms, drives, and the psychosexual stages of development. The primary driving force behind the theory is the id, ego and superego and the division of consciousness into the conscious mind, the pre/subconscious, and the unconscious.
Punishment
The adding of a stimulus that results in a decrease of a response.
Quasi-Experimental Research
Any research study that uses specific experimental methods but does not randomize subjects
Ratio Scale Any scale of measurement possessing magnitude, equal intervals, and an absolute zero
Rational Emotive Therapy
A cognitive Therapy based on Albert Ellis’ theory that cognitions control our emotions and behaviors therefore, changing the way we think about things will affect the way we feel and the way we behave.
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