Politics Test 2

Civil liberties are
restraints on the actions of government against individuals
As originally presented in the Constitution, the Bill of Rights
limited only the power of national government, not the states
The incorporation theory involves
application of the Bill of Rights to states
The concept of the separation of church and state
refers to the establishment clause of the First Amendment of the Constitution
forbids the government from establishing an official religion
In Lemon vs. Kurtzman, the Supreme Court found that
the government must avoid excessive entanglement with religion
According to a Supreme Court decision, prayer in public schools
may not be sponsored or endorsed by school officials
The free exercise clause
limits the national government from prohibiting people from practicing their religions
is a part of the First Amendment
Speech may be restricted if that speech
has the tendency to cause harm or danger
Which of the following forms of symbolic speech are not protected by the First Amendment?
The principle that speech may be restricted if such expression might lead to some “evil” is
the bad-tendency rule
Commercial speech is usually defined as
advertising statements
Regarding freedom of speech on state college and university campuses, federal courts have found
activity fees that go to support a variety of on campus political groups to be constitutional
The First Amendment prevents Congress from making any laws that
Prior restraint is
censorship before publication
New York Times v United States 1971
affirmed the no prior restraint doctrine in the Pentagon Papers case
For a public figure to obtain a damage award under libel law, he or she must
prove that he/she suffered from a falsehood just as much as a private person
The reality concerning obscenity and pornography is
primary responsibility is with the state and local governments
difficult to define
The Supreme Court, self-defense, 2nd Amendment
District of Columbia v. Heller (2008)
All must have warrants except
You are in your home minding your own business
Double jepordy prevents
two trials by the same government for the same crime
The purpose of a grand jury is to
determine whether there is sufficient evidence to justify a trial
A defendant’s pre-trial rights include all of the following expect
the right to an impartial jury
Miranda v. Arizona
police must inform any suspect of a series of rights, 5th Amendment
Gideon v. Wainwright
if anyone cannot afford an attorney, the government must provide one, 6th Amendment
The 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th Amendment together define
due process Amendments
Cruel and unusual punishment is prohibited by
8th Amendment
The only purpose of the death penalty in the United States is
the finality of the death penalty
Griswold v Connecticut
held that the law violated the right to privacy
Roe v Wade
it extended the right to privacy to cover a woman’s personal decision about abortion
True about civil rights
what government must do to ensure equal protection and freedom from discrimination
13th amendment
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude
15th amendment
suffrage for black males
equal protections of the law
14th amendment
Jim Crow
racial segregation in the South after Reconstruction
Plessy v. Ferguson
upheld that segregation was not a violation of the Constitution
The Separate but Equal Doctrine stated that
states can require separation facilities based on race as long as facilities are equal in nature
Brown v. Board of Education
racially segregated schools can never be equal
Poll tax
dissuade African Americans and poor whites from voting
work place discrimination
the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
forbade discrimination on the basis of race
A major result of the Voting Act of 1965 was
the amount of African Americans registered to vote increased dramatically
De facto segregation means
attributed to residential racial patterns, not because of laws
non-violent civil disobedience
At what level of scrutiny do courts review cases involving gender discrimination, such as military schools prohibiting females
intermediate scrunity
Laws that potentially interfere with fundamental rights or classify people based on race have to pass which test employed by the Courts
strict scrunity
Courts presume government classifications based on race to be
inherently suspect
State laws that restrict the right to vote to people over age 18 are an example of
a reasonable basis for discrimination
Affirmative action in the United States involves
initating law suits against the US government for its past discriminatory practices
University of California Regents v. Bakke
race cannot be the sole factor
affirmative action, Supreme Court
Although racial set-asides are unconstitutional, race may be considered as one of the many factors in determining college admissions.

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