Political Systems of the United States and Uzbekistan
Thesis statementThere is a big difference in the political systems of the United States and Uzbekistan.The biography of the two statesThe political structure of the United States of America is intricately arranged in a kind of unique way. Several hitherto weak states amalgamated to make up a vast area with political and economic autonomy. It is located in the western hemisphere bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean. It is composed of forty eight states. The United States of America has several territories in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean. When the term ‘United States’ is used, it has a geographical inclination.
It is used to refer to Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, Puerto Rico, continental Europe, and the virgin lands off the United States of America. It borders Mexico, Canada, and share maritime water borders with Russia, Cuba and the Bahamas (Almond et al, 2008).The five great lakes are situated at the north central portion of America. Four of them form part of the America-Canada border. Southeast America contains subtropical forests and mangrove wetlands especially in Florida. The Mississippi river basin and two large eastern tributaries, Ohio River and Tennessee River lie west of the Appalachian Mountains. Great plains lie at the west of Mississippi River and east of Rocky Mountains. It is here that large of the country’s agriculture is concentrated in.
At the west of the Rocky Mountains lie the intermontane plateaus. There is a large arid desert that lies between the rocks and the cascades and Sierra Nevada ranges. The great basin contains salt flats, drainage basins and many north- southern ranges that are small. The south west is a low lying desert region.National parks such as Grand Canyon, Arches and Bryce canyon lie at the Colorado plateau. The pacific coast has a terrain that is hilly and has mountains. Is has geologically crustal deformations and preserves a larger relief than the Atlantic. The total area of the United States of America is 3,717,813 Square Miles or 9,629,090 Kilometers.
Its water base is 181,519 Square Miles or 470,131 Kilometers. It has latitude of 38°0′ N and a longitude of 97°0’W (Almond et al, 2008).The topography in the eastern United States is varied. It contains a broad, flat coastal plain lying in the Atlantic and gulf and shores from Texas-Mexico border to New York which includes Florida and peninsula. The inland has features of rolling hills and temperate forests. Mountains such as Appalachian form a line of low mountains that separate the eastern seaboard from great lakes and Mississippi basin (Almond et al, 2008).The United States of America has is mostly temperate in climate, but is tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska. It is semi arid in the Great Plains west of the Mississippi river.
Low winter temperate occur in the North West and are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm Chinook winds from eastern slopes of the rocky mountains (Akbarzadeh, 2005).According to the United States bureau, the occupant population count estimation as at October 2010 is rated at 310,535,579. One birth is estimated to take place in every seven seconds, one death in every twelve seconds and one global migrant enters the United States in every thirty seven seconds. Among regions in 2000, the northeast region had the lowest male-female ratio. The mid west and south had the highest male-female ratio approaching correspondence between the sexes. Generally women are many than men. The male sex population has been growing slightly faster than the female sex.The economic structure of the United States of America is industrialist.
It is the most powerful and scientific in the whole world. The per capita gross national income of the country is prosperous and is much higher than other industrial economies in the world. Of the diverse sectors of the economy, the service quarter is the highest contributor to the United States of America GDP. The country being industrialized, agriculture accounts for a minimal share of the total national income. Rated in 2007, the American GDP was believed to be $ 13.84 trillion three times the size of the next largest economy (Almond et al, 2008).On the other hand, Uzbekistan is positioned in central Asia neighboring the Aral Sea, between Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. It is slightly larger than the state of California.
It has a total area of 447,400 sq km 172,742 sq mi. it is comprised o a mid-latitude desert, long and hot summers, mild winters and semi arid grassland in the east.It has a topography that is flat to undulating sandy desert with dunes, broad, flat extremely irrigated river valleys along track of Amu Darya and Zarafshon. Fergana valley is in the east enclosed by Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan mountains. It has shrinking Aral Sea in the west. The natural resources in Uzbekistan are natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, silver, copper, zinc, tungsten and molybdenum (Akbarzadeh, 2005).Sixty percent of Uzbekistan’s population lives in the rural areas. Its population is comprised of young people.
About half of the population is under the age of twenty five. Its population growth rate has recorded a high significance in growth. Today the Uzbekistani’s population is almost 26 million people. The people live on a territory of about 168,000 square kilometers (Akbarzadeh, 2005).The population high growth has been influenced by in-migration from other parts of the former Soviet Union. High growth rate is expected to aid increase sharp population pressures those of the former soviet republics. The ethnic distribution of Uzbekistan is of Russians, Tajiks, Kazakhs, Uzbeks and Tatar (Akbarzadeh, 2005).A unitary system of the constitution is one which has a set of central institutions which have ultimate political and legal authority within a territory.
There might be other subordinate local or regional institutions of law and government. The central authority can overrule any action taken by them.The types of constitutional systemsThe United States economy has been interfered with the creation of the European Union common market. Two thirds of the total production is driven by personal consumption. The u s a consumer is a bigger contributor to the global economic activity. In 2008, the national debt stood at $9.2 million threatening the economy. The us economy comprise of sectors such as mining, finance and insurance, real estate, renal and leasing, manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade and transportation among others.
The federal type of constitutional structure gives the central government considerable authority but the lesser sub divisions also hold significant power.The United States of America political system is overtly obscure. It has evolved according to the needs of its citizenry. In the United States of America the federal type of the constitution is in use. It is the oldest federal constitution in the world. It was framed by a convention of delegates from twelve of the thirteen states in Philadelphia in May 1787. It is the legal certificate of the United States of America. In the America’s constitutional system, the influence of the government is defined, circulated and limited by law.
The U S A constitution is superior and takes primacy over all decisions and actions of the supervisory branches of the national and state governments.The United States’ constitution not only defines and limits the authority of the central government but also the authority of the states and their subdivisions. States and their subdivisions have their own constitution that is applicable to their own situation. The states’ own constitutions are however limited by the United States’ constitution. The countries constitution can overrule a states constitution when it deems relevant. The constitution limits the national government and the states from granting titles of nobility. It obligates the national government to guarantee each state a republican form of government. The United States is a constitutional republic (Almond et al, 2008).
It describes three major branches of the federal government and their jurisdictions namely the executive, the legislature and the judicial arms of the government. The executive is comprised of the President, the Cabinet, the Federal Departments and Agencies. The powers of the president are defined and limited by the constitution, the office of the president, federal agencies and commissions. Issues about succession, payment, oath of office and qualifications of the president of the United States of America are stipulated here.The legislative branch entails The Legislative Branch consists of House of Representatives, Senate the powers of the legislator, how elections should be conducted and the formation congress, its officers and committees and its dowers. It stipulates the rights of the citizens, foreign affairs, immigration and matters of national security. The judicial arm deals with matters of interpreting the law. The United States court system is also featured under the judicial system.
The powers of the court, how the court work as and justice matters are stipulated under the judicial arm. Under the judicial system the courts are divided according to the work and types of cases they handle. There is the Supreme Court which provides information about justice creation, appellate jurisdiction and rule making powers. There is the court of international trade which deals with international trade and custom duties. There are also the district courts, territorial courts, bankrupsy courts, and courts of appeal and the court of appeal for federal circuit. All the functions of the above courts are stipulated by the judicial arm of the government.Political socializationPolitical socialization deals with how people acquire or learn their political way of life and form attitudes towards their political organization. Political culture in America is portrayed in the nation’s radical past.
When we speak of America’s distinctiveness, we mean that there is a wide variety of opinions on almost every political issue and public policy. There are identifiable hub beliefs that help to define America’s political culture. These are emphasis on individual liberty, support for equality, belief in the majority rule and faith in the constitution and form of government it establishes. Most of the American citizens are nationalistic and optimistic of their country’s purpose and plan for future (Vile, 2007).America’s political culture is comprised of unanimously held logic of duty and obligation to be informed and to participate in politics through voting. However people become disappointed when the government they have voted for fails to deliver up to their expectations. This disappointments influence how people vote and do away with the non performing government.The political structure of Uzbekistan comprises of the constitution and the government.
Uzbekistan’s constitution was adopted on December 8, 1992 by the eleventh session of the supreme council of the twelfth convocation. It consists of six sections. The first section defines the major principles of the constitution. The second section stipulates the fundamental rights, freedoms, and responsibilities of the people and the citizens. The third section governs the economic and social basis of the country. The forth section determines the administrative, state and territorial structure. The fifth state the functions of the government and the sixth regulates order of amendments (Akbarzadeh, 2005).The Uzbekistan government comprises of the senate and the legislature.
The senate is the highest chamber and consists of the territorial symbol. Members of the senate are elected in the same quantity. Sixteen members of the senate are appointed by the president. This is done considering experience in profession and special merit in the fields of science, art, literature, and industry among other fields. Six persons from each territorial entity are elected by secret ballot.The Uzbekistan president is the head of the state and executive power. He is the chairman of the cabinet. He is elected by citizens throughout the nation for a term of five years.
The president is the guarantor of democracy and observes the constitution. He represents the country in international relations. He forms and manages the cabinet. The cabinet is approved by the oily Majlis of the republic. It is the supreme executive power o the state. They execute law and other decisions issued by the oily Majlis and presidential orders (Akbarzadeh, 2005).There are local bodies of power. These are the councils of the people’s deputies and governors.
They form the government in the regions, districts and towns. They institute power based on personal responsibility and meets the requirements for a stronger government which can solve vital problems.There is the judicial authority which forms the court system. It deals with matters pertaining to justice. There is the constitutional court dealing with execution of the constitution, the Supreme Court, the municipal court, regional, district, town and military courts all dealing with different issues. They are all appointed for a term of five years. The electoral system defines how elections should be done and after a certain period.Pressure groups and effect on politicsMost American citizens learn their political values during childhood years and this remains fairly static through their adult life.
The most influential sources from which Americans pick up the political values when they are young are the family, schools, and the media. The family presents the most noteworthy and enduring influence on political attitudes, behavior and beliefs. There is correspondence noted in the political party that one chooses and that which his or her parents chose when he or she was young (Vile, 2007).Children learn important beliefs and attitudes towards the political system early in life. They learn to respect the authority, obey laws and participate in the political process. They carry these beliefs to adulthood which influence him to become responsible citizens who contribute to the country’s political process and nation building. However this is not always the case for all citizens. This is because as they grow into adults, things become more realistic and may not correspond to their belief and expectations.
This results into low participating adults to America’s political process. The school is also important. High school and college students are made to take courses in civics which entails America’s history and government. This helps them acquire attitudes towards their political system (Almond et al, 2008).Pressure groups play an important role in America n political system. They transmit the views of different societal groups. The pressure group in America is looked at as an interest group. The pressure groups in America are such like trade associations, foreign corporations, professional associations, union, citizen group, civil rights/minorities, Social Welfare and the poor, environmental group, the anti and pro gun groups and the nuclear freeze group.
The pressure groups are different from the political groups.The pressure groups try to influence legislation by mobilizing public opinion. They are normally called to provide evidence at congressional meetings and government departments depending on their area of concern. Pressure groups help the society by influencing the government to consider their plight when making legislations and budget implementation.Political socialization in Uzbekistan mainly depends on the political parties present in the country. The people have not formed their own public opinion groups that may help bring their views to the government. Instead of this, they use their political parties to air their views. The political parties however do not do much because most of them agree with the functionality of the government.
Political leaders are the ones mandated to recognize plurality in the society and institutionalize democratic mechanisms. They are tasked to collect good democratic practices so as to strengthen the publics’ trust and confidence to the democratic process of the country. How people vote is largely determined by the parties they hold. Ethnicity and family does play an important role in vote decision making. The young political pioneers and communist youth organizations act as important sources for political socialization in Uzbekistan (Akbarzadeh, 2005).Regimes and LegitimacyThe political rule that is common to the Americans is the representative democracy. It is a regime where by the representatives of the citizens are elected openly by them. The representatives make political decisions for the citizens assuming that their decision represents the universal expectations of the republic.
The United States has stated clearly that its political command is that of a group of United State’s entities (Almond et al, 2008).The political regime in Uzbekistan is controlled democracy. The authorities actions are meant to maintain the status quo of the political situation. Even the opposition parties, in their tasks ensure that they don’t offend the authorities. If they do so, then the opposition leaders risk going to jail. This therefore makes the political system of the country weak. The political legitimacy in Uzbekistan is dependant on the islamisation of political power. The growing reliance on Islamic symbolism is the shaping agent of political legitimacy in Uzbekistan (Akbarzadeh, 2005).
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