Physical Properties of Matter





The ability to do work



Potential Energy


Stored Energy


Molecules or objects that are not moving have potential energy



Kinetic Energy



Energy of moving molecules or objects





Average Kinetic Energy

Cold = Low energy

Hot = High energy



Types of Energy



Thermal, Chemical, Light, Nuclear,

Electrical and Mechanical



3 Laws of Conservation



must be conserved.

None can be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.






Energy given off


 Negative — Δ H

Bonds Formed






Energy absorbed


Positive + ΔH

Bonds Broken






Average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.


Hot= High KE  Cold = Low KE



Units of Energy


Calorie, Joule, Kilojoule


Cal, J, KJ



Specific Heat


the amounf of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius.



Pure Substances


Two things are considered pure substances


Elements: cannot be broken down

Compounds: can only be broken down using a chemical reaction, not a physical change.



2 Types of Mixtures

 Homogeneous: a uniform mixture (salt water), Solutions are water clear Homogeneous mixtures. Use (aq)- aqueous, to show if it is dissovled in water

Heterogeneous: having different parts that can still be seen (salad dressing)






Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases


Gas particles move constantly in straight lines, when they hit things, they lose no energy, and the particles are not attracted to each other (no intermolecular forces).



Properties of the 3 Phases of Matter


Solid– def vol. + shape, little movement of particles, only vibration.

 Liquid Def. volume, NO def shape. Particles spaced enough so they may slide past one another.

 Gas – No def vol. or shape. Exert pressure on surroundings or container.  



Mixtures are NOT pure substances, but can be made up of them. Mixtures can be DECOMPOSED by physical means.

Methods of Separation:


distillation    for liquids with different boiling points

evaporation  a liquid and dissolved solid

filtration        a undissolved soild and liquid

chromotography  a complex mixture




Phase Changes

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