Phonology Mid-Term Study Guide

Sonorant
speech sounds that are produced with a relatively open vocal tract, creating a resonant quality of the sounds, sounds that have more acoustic energy and are louder, in American English vowel, nasals, and approximants are considered sonorants
Obstruent
sounds that are produced with a complete or narrow constriction at some point in the vocal tract, includes stop-plosives, fricatives, and affricates
Morpheme
the smallest semantically meaningful unit in a language
Cognate
a pair of similar sounds
Allophone
variations in phoneme realizations that do not change the meaning of a word when they are produced in various contexts
Phoneme
the smallest linguistic unit that is able, when combined with other such units, to establish word meanings and distinguish between them
Phonetics
the science and study of speech emphasizing the description of speech sounds according to their production, transmission, and perceptual features
Phonology
studies the structure and systematic patterning of sounds in a particular language, includes the description of the sounds a language uses and the rules governing how those sounds are organized
Graphemes
a letter or combination of letters that supposedly represents a speech sound
Phone
a speech sound within a given language
Resonance
the selective absorption and reinforcement of sound energies, which create the characteristic quality of certain speech sounds
Speech systems
respiration, phonation, resonation, articulation
Oropharynx
portion of the pharynx that extends from the soft palate to the hyoid bone, also called the mediopharynx
Trachea
“air pipe”
Esophagus
the flap that covers the trachea during eating
Articulator
anatomical structures directly involved in the generation of speech sounds, including the lips, tongue, mandible, teeth, hard palate, alveolar ridge, velum, uvula
active articulators
anatomical structure that moves during the production of speech sounds: lower lip, tongue tip, lateral tongue, tongue surface
passive articulators
immovable portion of the vocal tract, paired with an active articulator: upper lip, upper teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate, glottis
Mandible
the lower jaw, is an articulator
Subglottal
the area below the vocal folds