Philosophy – Essay Plans

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‘Explain Hume’s criticisms of the Cosmological Argument’ (25)
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Intro – Outline the Cosmological Argument All events must have a cause. The universe is an event. God is the first cause of the universe. Intro 2 – Hume, who only accepts empirical data, questioned the idea that all events have a cause Hume Criticism 1 – Does it have a beginning? Just because everything in our world is governed by cause and effect, that doesn’t mean the universe had to have a cause? Could it not be infinite? Could we not be mistaken? (Bus analogy) Hume Criticism 2 – Is there one Mover? Hume suggested maybe there wasn’t one Mover, but maybe several acting together like a committee? Hume Criticism 3 – Why is the First Cause the Christian God? If we base our argument on our human experience of cause and effect, wouldn’t it be more logical to suggest a world created by male and female gods who are born and will die? Conclusion – Hume may have undermined the argument because his criticisms were based on Empirical evidence and that the CA is scientifically problematic
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To what extent was Hume successful in his critique of the Cosmological Argument? (10)
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Intro – What counts as success? Did anyone who previously believed in this as a way to understanding God have their beliefs destroyed? No. Point 1 – There must be a necessary being, Hume got that right. Would God have necessary existence? Yes. The existence of the Uni doesn’t prove there is a God Wrong – The Big Bang shows that the universe must have had a beginning. Factually, we know it had a beginning. Right – Had a point about more than one First Cause Wrong – Couldn’t come around organically like a giant spider – Spiritual being becoming a cause of a physical process (even with the Big Bang) Surely it is reasonable to look for a cause of the universe? So Hume was right and wrong, and was successful and unsuccessful in his critique of the CA.
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‘Explain the Irenaean Theodicy’ (25)
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‘To what extent can evil be said to be simple a test?’ (10)
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‘Explain Aristotle’s understand of the Four Causes’ (25)
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‘Aristotle’s Four Causes fail as a description of the real world. Discuss.’ (10)
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‘Explain Paley’s argument for the existence of God’ (25)
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‘The Universe has no purpose’ (10)
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