Petroleum Unit section B

A car wastes (25/50/75) percent of the energy produced from the burning of gasoline.
75% waste, through heat and friction.

Ethanol has a heat of combustion of 1407 kJ/mole.  How much energy is released from the burning of 18.0 grams of ethanol?


hint – you need to know the molecular formula of ethanol.  


The recommended daily intake of copper is 3 mg per day. In the course of a lifetime, 80 years, how many grams of copper does this daily intake add up to?



The unit Joule measures

The specific heat of liquid water is 4.2 J per gram per degree celsius, while the specific heat of ice is 2.0 J per gram per degree celsius. 


If you have equal masses of liquid water and ice, and give each sample 25 J of energy, which sample will change its temperature more

The ice. 


Think of specific heat as a measure of resistance to temperature change.  The smaller the specific heat, the smaller the resistance to temperature change.

A molecule’s energy is found in its ___________.

The density of water is 1.0 g/mL.; Convert this value to mg/L.




A potato chip burns and raises the temperature of 95 g of water from 8 to 29 ;C.; The mass of the potato chip decreases by 0.86 g.; Calculate the heat of combustion (in units of kJ/g) of the potato chip.


The specific heat of water is 4.2 J per gram per ;C.;


How many liters of crude oil are in 1 barrel of crude oil?


Useful conversions: 4 qt = 1 gallon, 0.946 L = 1 qt, 1 barrel = 42 gallons




A candle burns, and its mass drops by 0.85 grams.; Where did the mass go?

When a candle burns, the wax reacts with oxygen in the air to produce CO2 and H2O.


The lost mass can be found in the mass of the CO2 and H2O produced.

The heat of combustion of butane;is 2859 kJ/mol.; Write a balanced thermochemical equation.
2 C4H10 + 13 O2; ;; 8 CO2 + 10 H2O + 5718 kJ

The heat of combustion of butanol is 2713 kJ/mole. Write a balanced thermochemical equation.


Hint:; you need to figure out the molecular formula of butanol first.

1 C4H10O + 6 O2; ;; 4 CO2 + 5 H2O + 2713 kJ
When water absorbs energy, the temperature of the water (incerases/decreases) and the process is (exo/endo) thermic.
increases, endo.

Which water flow rate measurement is larger:


1 cL/min or 450 cL/hour?

How many centiliters are in 1 mL?
The products of a combustion reaction have (more/less) energy than the reactants.
Since the reaction is exothermic (all combustion reactions are exothermic) the answer is less.
Combustion reactions are (exo/endo)thermic.

8,500 J of energy is released by a;14 gram water sample.; What temperature change does it undergo?;


The specific heat of water is 4.2 J per gram per ;C.


Crude oil is a (renewable/nonrenewable) resource because________________.


Nonrenewable, because the natural processes of the Earth do not produce crude oil in a reasonable time frame.; It takes millions of years to;decompose organic matter into crude oil.
All reactions require a certain amount of energy to start.; This energy is called the _____________.
Activation Energy (EA).

Convert a water flow rate of 4.2 liters per hour to units of centiliters per second.


The mass of an electron is 9.11 x 10-28 grams.; Convert this mass to pounds.


Useful conversion:; 1 kg = 2.2 pounds

Butane has a density of 0.57 g/mL.; Butane’s heat of combustion is 49.3 kJ/g.  How much energy would 5.5 mL of butane release?
The specific heat of stainless steel is 0.51 J per gram per degree Celsius.  A 15 gram sample changes its temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C.  How much energy was (absorbed/released)?
Draw an enthalpy diagram for a reaction having a ΔH of +30 kJ, EA = 40 kJ, and a product energy of 50 kJ. 

1. 15 kJ

2. -15 kJ

3.  40 kJ

Water has a (low/high) specific heat capacity.
In the equation q=mCΔT, the symbol for heat energy is
In the equation q=mCΔT, the symbol for specific heat capacity is
The molecular formula of ethane is
The molecular formula of butyne is
The molecular formula of propene is

Write the thermochemical equation for the combustion of propene.


The molar heat of combustion of propene is 1924 kJ/mole.



2 C3H6 + 9 O2 → 6 CO26 H2O + 3848 kJ

The molar heat of combustion of propene is 1924 kJ per mole.  How many molecules of propene are needed to produce 73 kJ of energy?


hint:  you will need the mole to particle conversion here. 

An unknown metal with a mass of 26.5 g absorbs 1200 J of energy, and the temperature rises from 25 ºC to 138 ºC.  What is the specific heat capacity of this metal? 
The specific heat of sand is 0.9 J per gram per degree Celsius.  If 4,500 J of energy are added to a 150 gram sample of sand, by how much does the temperature rise?
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