Petroleum Section C

Classify as an alkane, alkene or alkyne:



Alkyne.  The general formula for an alkyne is CnH2n-2.


Alkynes have a triple bond between 2 carbon atoms in the molecule.

Which compound is more soluble in liquid hexane:


[image]       or      [image]



because it is more “like” hexane – it is a hydrocarbon chain without any functional groups, like hexane. 


Remember the phrase “like dissolves like.”

Classify as an alcohol, acid or ester:



It is an ester.


Remember that esters have the general structure



Phenol is the name of the compound consisting of a benzene ring with an alcohol functional group attached.


1.  Draw the structural formula.

2.  Write the molecular formula.

   [image]                     or    






C6H6O is the molecular formula

Draw the line angle structure of 2-pentanol. 




The ends of the molecule do not necessarily need the CH3 written in.

Name this compound:





We know it’s an alkane because of the general formula CnH2n+2

Describe the structural formula and shape of the molecule ethyne.

Ethyne has a triple bond between the carbon atoms:



The 4 atoms in ethyne would all be in a straight line.

Name this compound:



A triple convalent bond between two carbon atoms contains how many electrons?
6 electrons.

1.  What does the “R” in    [image]   mean?


2.  What class of molecule is this?

1.  The “R” stands for the rest of the carbon chain in the molecule.


2.  This is an acid.

Draw the structural formula of propyne.
Alkenes are classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons.  Explain what this means.
Not all of the carbon atoms are bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.  When you make a double bond, you must remove hydrogens.

1.  Alcohol, acid or ester?




2.  Name this compound.

It is an acid – propanoic acid.

Draw the structure of the ester produced from the reaction below:


   butanoic acid + ethanol   –>

What is the general formula for an alkene?

Draw an isomer of



3 possibilities:


[image]              [image] 


Name this compound:





(not 1-propene, because there is no other place for the double bond to go, therefore you don’t need the “1”

Alcohol, ester or acid (and name it):



alcohol – it is named ethanol.

1.  What is the molecular formula of cycloheptane?


2.  Draw the structural formula.




True or False:


1.  Carbon always makes 4 bonds.


2.  Carbon always bonds to 4 other atoms.


3.  Carbon has a molar mass of 6 g/mol.

1.  TRUE




3.  FALSE.  The molar mass of carbon is 12 g/mol.

Draw the structure of benzene, showing all hydrogens.

Is the molecule




saturated or unsaturated?

Unsaturated.  Since two middle carbons are only bonded to one hydrogen each, they must be double bonded to each other.

Which compound is more soluble in water:


 [image]          or





Methanol, because the nonpolar part of the compound (the carbon part) is smaller.  Water doesn’t have any carbon atoms, so the smaller hydrocarbon is more soluble in water.


They are both soluble to some extent, because both have the -OH functional group like water.

Toluene is a commonly-used organic solvent.  It is a benzene ring with a methyl group substituted for a hydrogen.



1.  Draw the structural formula.


2.  Write the molecular formula.







Which acid is required to synthesize this ester?

Name the acid.



Ethanoic acid
To make an ester, you react an ____ with an ____.



acid       alcohol

Ester molecules have how many oxygen atoms in their structures?

Two.  See the general structure of an ester below.



In this general formula for an ester, the R’ group comes from the (acid / alcohol).





Cis, trans, or neither:





trans (look at the methyl groups)


Cis, trans, or neither:






Cis, trans, or neither:






What does the “circle” inside  the structural formula of a benzene molecule symbolize?
6 electrons, equally shared among all of the carbon-to-carbon bonds.
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