Personal Fitness Study Guide

Aerobic
using oxygen
Aerobic Activities
Activities using large muscle groups at moderate intensities that permit the body to use oxygen to supply energy to maintain a steady state for more than a few minutes.
Aerobic Endurence
The ability to continue anaerobic activity over a period of time
Anaerobic
Not using oxygen
Cardiovascular
Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
Circuit Training
A series of exercises, performed one after the other, with little rest between. Resistance training in this manner increases strength while making some contribution to cardiovascular endurance as well. (It remains controversial as to whether a significant cardiovascular benefit will be achieved in the absence of very consistent motivation or close supervision of the sessions)
Cool Down
A gradual reduction of the intensity of exercise to allow physiological processes to return to normal. Helps avoid blood pooling in the legs and may reduce muscular soreness
Dehydration
The condition resulting from the excessive loss of body water
Endurence
The capacity to continue a physical performance over a period of time
Exercise
Physical exertion of sufficient intensity, duration and frequency to achieve or maintain fitness, or other health or athletic objectives
Fatique
The state of well-being consisting of optimum levels of strength
Fitness
The state of well-being consisting of optimum levels of strength, flexibility, weight control, cardiovascular capacity and positive physical and mental health behaviors, that prepare a person to participate fully in life, to be free from controllable health-risk factors and to achieve physical objectives consistent with his/her potential
Fitness testing
Measuring the indicators of the various aspects of fitness
Flexibility
Range of motion around a joint
Frequency
How often a person repeats a complete exercise session
Heart Rate
Number of heartbeats per minute
Intensity
rate of performing work; power. A function of energy output per unit of time
Interval training
An exercise in which the intensity and duration of exercise are consciously alternated between harder and easier work. Often used to improve aerobic capacity and/or anaerobic endurance in exercisers who already have a base of endurance training.
Ligament
the fibrous, connective tissue that connects bone to bone, or bone to cartilage, to hold together and support joints
Metabolism
The total of all the chemical and physical processes by which the body builds and maintains itself and by which it breaks down its substances for the production of energy
Nutrients
Food and its specific elements and compounds that can be used by which the body builds and maintain itself and to produce energy
Obesity
Excessive accumulation of body fat
One Repetition maximum, 1RM
The maximum resistance with which a person can execute one repetition of an exercise movement
Muscle Group
Specific muscles that act together at the same joint to produce a movement
Physical Fitness
The physiological contribution to wellness through exercise and nutrition behaviors that maintain high aerobic capacity, balance body composition and adequate strength and flexibility to minimize risk of chronic health problems and to enhance the enjoyment of life
Plyometric
A type of exercise that suddenly preloads and forces the stretching of a muscle an instant prior to its concentric action
Power
Work performed per unit of time. Measured by the formula: work=force x distance/time. a combination of strength and speed
Repetition
An individual completed exercise movement. Repetitions are usually done in multiples
Resistance
The force which a muscle is required to work against
Set
a group of repetitions of an exercise movement done consecutively, without rest, until a given number, or momentary exhaustion, is reached
Sprain
A stretching or tearing of ligaments
Strain
A stretching or tearing a musculotendinous unit
Strength
The amount of muscular force that can be exerted
Stretching
Lengthening a muscle to its maximum extension: moving a joint to the limits of extension
Target Heart Rate (THR)
The heart rate which one aims to exercise
Tendon
Fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
Tendonitis
Inflammation of a tendon
Warm-Up
Gradual increase in the intensity of exercise to allow physiological processes to prepare for greater energy outputs
Workout
A complete exercise session, ideally consisting of warm-up, intense aerobic and/or strength exercises and cool down