## Periodicity and Atomic Structure

 Wavelength
 The distance from one peak to the next measures in m or mm
 frequency
 number of peaks that pass a specified point in one second   S^-1 OR 1/S OR Hz
 equation for wavelength
 λ=C/ν wavelength=speed of light ÷ frequency
 speed of light
 3.00 X 10^8 m/s
 Define amplitude.   What does amplitude dictate?
 intensity or height of a wave   brightness
 Types of rays in order from highest energy to lowest
 gamma 10-12 x-rays 10-10 UV 10-8 visible infrared 10-6 micro 10-4 radio 10-2 (great xylophonists use vintage instruments made rarely)
 Heinsberg Uncertainty Principle
 It is impossible to know an electrons position AND momentum at the same time
 Ψ
 psi; wave function; refers to the probability of finding an electron is a certain region of space
 Each wave function contains four quantum numbers.  What are the four types of quantum numbers?
 principal quantum (n) angular momentum (l) magnetic quantum(Ml) spin quantum (Ms)
 principal quantum number
 refers to the energy level or size of the orbital shells “n”=1,2,3, etc…
 angular momentum quantum number
 refers to the 3D shape of the orbital “l”=any value from 0 to (n-1) s=0, p=(0,1) d=(0,1,2) f=(0,1,2,3) g=(0,1,2,3,4)….
 magnetic quantum number
 defines the orientation of the orbital Ml = ±l ex) if l=3 (or g), Ml equals -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3, which means there are 7 orientations
 spin quantum number
 refers to the direction of an electron’s spin ; Ms= +1/2 or -1/2
 pauli exclusion principle
 states that no to electrons in the same atom can have the exact same four quantum numbers
 where electrons will rest
 1S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 1S 2S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 2S 2P 2P 3S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;3S 3P 3D 3P 4S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 4S 4P 4D 4F 3D 4P 5S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;5S;5P 5D 5F 5G; ;
 orientations of s p Let us write you a custom essay sample on Periodicity and Atomic Structure For Only \$13.90/page ORDER NOW d f ;
 s has one orientation p has 3 orientations d has five orientations f has seven orientations
 Noble Gas Configuration
 if you have already written out the electron configuration for an atom of a certain charge, find the noble gas before that atom on the periodic table and then write out only the orbitals of electrons not covered by the noble gas.
 rules for writing electron configurations of ions
 for negative ions- add electrons to the highest unfilled orbital. usually electrons are added so that the elctron configuration is the same as the nearest noble gas. ; for positive ions- remove electrons from the orbital with the highest value of n first. usually, electrons are removed so that the remaining orbitals are either filled or half filled.
 isoelectronic
 when a noble gas has the same number of electrons and same electron configuration as an ion ; ex) Argon is isoelectronic to S2-,;Ca2+, Cl1-
 Visible Light Spectrum
 400nm to 700 nm ;
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