Periodicity and Atomic Structure

The distance from one peak to the next measures in m or mm

number of peaks that pass a specified point in one second


S^-1 OR 1/S OR Hz

equation for wavelength


wavelength=speed of light ÷ frequency

speed of light
3.00 X 10^8 m/s

Define amplitude.


What does amplitude dictate?

intensity or height of a wave



Types of rays in order from highest energy to lowest

gamma 10-12

x-rays 10-10

UV 10-8


infrared 10-6

micro 10-4

radio 10-2

(great xylophonists use vintage instruments made rarely)

Heinsberg Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to know an electrons position AND momentum at the same time
psi; wave function; refers to the probability of finding an electron is a certain region of space
Each wave function contains four quantum numbers.  What are the four types of quantum numbers?

principal quantum (n)

angular momentum (l)

magnetic quantum(Ml)

spin quantum (Ms)

principal quantum number

  • refers to the energy level or size of the orbital
  • shells
  • “n”=1,2,3, etc…

angular momentum quantum number

  • refers to the 3D shape of the orbital
  • “l”=any value from 0 to (n-1)
  • s=0, p=(0,1) d=(0,1,2) f=(0,1,2,3) g=(0,1,2,3,4)…. 


magnetic quantum number

  • defines the orientation of the orbital
  • Ml = ±l
  • ex) if l=3 (or g), Mequals -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3, which means there are 7 orientations

spin quantum number

refers to the direction of an electron’s spin


Ms= +1/2 or -1/2

pauli exclusion principle
states that no to electrons in the same atom can have the exact same four quantum numbers
where electrons will rest

1S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 1S

2S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 2S 2P

2P 3S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;3S 3P 3D

3P 4S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 4S 4P 4D 4F

3D 4P 5S;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;5S;5P 5D 5F 5G;


orientations of






s has one orientation

p has 3 orientations

d has five orientations

f has seven orientations

Noble Gas Configuration
if you have already written out the electron configuration for an atom of a certain charge, find the noble gas before that atom on the periodic table and then write out only the orbitals of electrons not covered by the noble gas.
rules for writing electron configurations of ions

for negative ions- add electrons to the highest unfilled orbital. usually electrons are added so that the elctron configuration is the same as the nearest noble gas.


for positive ions- remove electrons from the orbital with the highest value of n first. usually, electrons are removed so that the remaining orbitals are either filled or half filled.


when a noble gas has the same number of electrons and same electron configuration as an ion


ex) Argon is isoelectronic to

S2-,;Ca2+, Cl1-

Visible Light Spectrum

400nm to 700 nm


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