Periodic Table of the Elements






Periodic Law


when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties





a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table


Group / Family


a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; the constituent elements of a group have similar chemical and physical properties


Alkali Metals


any metal in Group 1A of the periodic table


Alkaline Earth Metals


any metal in Group 2A of the periodic table




a nonmetal in Group 7A of the periodic table


Nobel Gases


an element in Group 8A of the periodic table; the s and p sublevels of the highest occupied energy level are filled




one of a class of elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current; metals tend to be ductile, malleable, and shiny




an element that tends to be a poor conductor of heat and electric current; nonmetals generally have properties opposite to those of metals


Semimetals / Metalloid


an element that tends to have properties that are similar to those of metals and nonmetals


Valence Electrons


an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom


s, p, d, f blocks




atomic radius


one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined


ionic radius




ionization energy


the energy required to remove an electron from an atom in its gaseous state




the ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound


Transition Metals


one of the Group B elements in which the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby d sublevel generally contain electrons


Lanthanide Series




Actinide Series




Diatomic Elements



a molecule consisting of two atoms

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