Periodic Properties of The Elements

Valence Orbitals
Orbitals that contain the outer-shell electrons of an atom.
Effective Nuclear Charge
The net positive charge experienced by an electron in a many electron atom.
Bonding Atomic Radius
The radius of an atom as defined by the distances separating it from other atoms to which it is chemically bonded.
Isoelectric Series
A series of atoms, ions, or molecules having the same number of electrons.
Ionization Energy
The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom when the atom is in its ground state.
Electron Affinity
The energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom or ion.
Metallic Character

The extent to which an element exhibits the physical and chemical properties characteristics of metals

Ex: Luster, maleability, ductility, good thermal, and electrical conductivity

Alkali Metals

Members of the 1A in the periodic table

1A: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr

Alkaline Earth Metals

Members of group 2A in the periodic table

List: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra

Hydroxide Ion
An ion formed by the addition of an electron to a hydrogen atom: H
The name given to O3, an allotrope of oxygen

Members of group 7A in the periodic table

List: F, Cl, Br, I, At

Noble Gases

Members of group 8A in the periodic table.

List: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

Zeff = Z – S
Estimating effective nuclear charge

Atomic Radius Periodic Trend


Across Periodic Table: Atom gets bigger

Down Periodic Table:  Atom gets bigger

First Ionization Energy Trend


Across Periodic Table: Energy increases

Down Periodic Table: Energy

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