argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies. Adaptations for “survival of the fittest”
discovered area in the brain (named for him) in the left frontal lobe responsible for language production
Flourins and Lashley
research on cats involving lesioning, noted that damage to certain parts of the brain causes consistent results, but that memories were not necessarily located in one single location
and has concentrated on the adult central nervous system and the unexpected plasticity and adaptability that remains throughout the life of all mammals. His work may lead to methods of replacing brain tissue lost to stroke or Alzheimer’s disease and repairing spinal cords damaged by trauma.
discovered that part of hypothalamus is smaller in gay men
studies how brain chemicals affect learning and memory, also studied how to cure alsheimers disease
cognitive psychology; created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)
First person to study memory scientifically and systematically; used nonsense syllables and recorded how many times he had to study a list to remember it well; studied forgetting curve and overlearning
social psychologist, responsible for Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
cognition and memory; studied repressed memories and false memories; showed how easily memories could be changed and falsely created by techniques such as leading questions and illustrating the inaccuracy in eyewitness testimony
Found that short term memory has the capacity of about 7 (+/- 2) items.
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
Pioneer in operant conditioning who discovered concepts in intstrumental learning such as the law of effect. Known for his work with cats in puzzle boxes.
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
a Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning
researcher famous for work in observational or social learning including the famous Bobo doll experiment (observational Learning)
conformity; showed that social pressure can make a person say something that is obviously incorrect ; in a famous study in which participants were shown cards with lines of different lengths and were asked to say which line matched the line on the first card in length
social psychology: proved that peoples behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play. Stanford Prison: power of social roles to influence people’s behavior
Groupthink; likely to occur in a group that has unquestioned beliefs, pressue to conform, invulnerability, censors, cohesiveness within, isolation from without, and a strong leader
Latane and Darley
following the kitty genovese murder conducted studies of the diffusion of responsibility and the bystander effect
a founder of social psychology, studied social norms, conducted Robber’s Cave experiment
Summarized research on attribution theory, showing that individuals commonly generate a significantly distorted perception of the motives and capabilities of other people’s acts based on whether that person is in an in-group or out-group member
trait theory of personality; 3 levels of traits: cardinal, central, and secondary.
was a British social psychologist, best known for his pioneering work on the cognitive aspects of prejudice and social identity theory, as well as being one of the founders of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology
Cognitive therapy; how cognition’s cause or maintain depression; developed a well known depression inventory
Rational Emotive Therapy-focuses on altering client’s patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions