Charles Darwin
argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies. Adaptations for “survival of the fittest”

Paul Broca
discovered area in the brain (named for him) in the left frontal lobe responsible for language production

Flourins and Lashley
research on cats involving lesioning, noted that damage to certain parts of the brain causes consistent results, but that memories were not necessarily located in one single location

Fred Gage
and has concentrated on the adult central nervous system and the unexpected plasticity and adaptability that remains throughout the life of all mammals. His work may lead to methods of replacing brain tissue lost to stroke or Alzheimer’s disease and repairing spinal cords damaged by trauma.

Simon LeVay
discovered that part of hypothalamus is smaller in gay men

Joe Martinez
studies how brain chemicals affect learning and memory, also studied how to cure alsheimers disease

Jean Piaget
cognitive psychology; created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)

Hermann Ebbinghaus
First person to study memory scientifically and systematically; used nonsense syllables and recorded how many times he had to study a list to remember it well; studied forgetting curve and overlearning

Leon Festinger
social psychologist, responsible for Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

Elizabeth Loftus
cognition and memory; studied repressed memories and false memories; showed how easily memories could be changed and falsely created by techniques such as leading questions and illustrating the inaccuracy in eyewitness testimony

George Miller
Found that short term memory has the capacity of about 7 (+/- 2) items.

John Watson
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat

Edward Thorndike
Pioneer in operant conditioning who discovered concepts in intstrumental learning such as the law of effect. Known for his work with cats in puzzle boxes.

B.F. Skinner
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.

Ivan Pavlov
a Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning

Albert Bandura
researcher famous for work in observational or social learning including the famous Bobo doll experiment (observational Learning)

Solomon Asch
conformity; showed that social pressure can make a person say something that is obviously incorrect ; in a famous study in which participants were shown cards with lines of different lengths and were asked to say which line matched the line on the first card in length

Philip Zimbardo
social psychology: proved that peoples behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play. Stanford Prison: power of social roles to influence people’s behavior

Irving Janis
Groupthink; likely to occur in a group that has unquestioned beliefs, pressue to conform, invulnerability, censors, cohesiveness within, isolation from without, and a strong leader

Latane and Darley
following the kitty genovese murder conducted studies of the diffusion of responsibility and the bystander effect

Muzafer Sherif
a founder of social psychology, studied social norms, conducted Robber’s Cave experiment

Thomas Pettigrew
Summarized research on attribution theory, showing that individuals commonly generate a significantly distorted perception of the motives and capabilities of other people’s acts based on whether that person is in an in-group or out-group member

Gordon Allport
trait theory of personality; 3 levels of traits: cardinal, central, and secondary.

Henri Taifel
was a British social psychologist, best known for his pioneering work on the cognitive aspects of prejudice and social identity theory, as well as being one of the founders of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology

Aaron Beck
Cognitive therapy; how cognition’s cause or maintain depression; developed a well known depression inventory

Albert Ellis
Rational Emotive Therapy-focuses on altering client’s patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions