Palmer Study guide 1 terms

Limited government
Basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights the government can’t take away

Manga Carta
Great charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of the law to nobility

English Bill of Rights
Document written by Parliament and agreed upon by William and Mary of England in 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs; forms the basis for much in American government and politics today

Petition of Right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of Kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land

Confederation
A joining of several groups for a common purpose

Albany Plan of Union
Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade , military and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown

Popular sovereignty
Basic principle of American system of government which asserts that the people are the source of any or all governmental power, and the government can exist only with the consent of the governed

Continental Congress
A convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies which became the governing body of the United States (USA) during the American Revolution. The Congress met from 1774 to 1789 in three incarnations.

Declaration of Independence
The document written by at the Continental Congress that said that man had unalienable rights and could abolish the government if it failed to provide those rights. It also outlined the wrongdoings of the king towards the colonies. Dated July 4th, 1776

Articles of Confederation
Plan of government adopted by the continental congress after the American Revolution; established “a firm league of friendship” among the states, but allowed few important powers to the central government

Mount Vernon Conference
A meeting of delegates from Virginia and Maryland held March 21-28, 1785, initially in Alexandria, Virginia and adjourned to the Fairfax County estate of George Washington, to discuss navigational rights in the states’ common waterways.

Annapolis Conference
A meeting of 12 delegates from five states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) that called for a constitutional convention in 1786. The formal title of the meeting was a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government.

Shay’s Rebellion
the name given to a series of protests in 1786 and 1787 by American farmers against state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgments for debt.

Philadelphia convention
1787 A Confrence at which 55 delegates from 12 states got together to revise the Articles of confederation that began in May of 1787. They ended up writing he constitution.

Government
The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies

Public policy
All of the many goals that a government pursues in all of the many areas of human affairs in which it was involved

Legislative power
The power to make a law and to frame public policies

Executive power
Those powers that can be exercised by the national government alone

Judicial power
The power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning and to settle disputes within the society

“The State”
A body of people living within a defined territory who have a government with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority

Sovereignty
Having supreme power within its own territory; neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority

Oligarchy
A form of government in which the power to rule is held by a small usually self appointed elite

Democracy
A form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people

Unitary government
A centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single central agency

Federal government
A form of government in which powers are divided between a central government and several local governments

Dictatorship
A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority

Presidential govt
A form of government in which the executive and legislative branches of the government are separate, independent ,and coequal

Parliamentary government
A form of government in which the executive branch is made up of the prime minister of premier and that official’s cabinet

Compromise
An adjustment of opposing principles or systems by modifying some aspect of each

Individual worth
One’s own value or self worth

Equality
the state of being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities

Majority rule
The principle that greater number should exercise greater power

Minority rights
the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups. May also apply simply to individual rights of anyone who is not part of a majority decision.

Individual freedom
the absence of restraint on our ability to think and act for ourselves.