Oxidation-Reduction Rections

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
*Key Concept: The substance gaining oxygen is oxidized while the substance loosing oxygen is reduced.*
*Key Concept: Loosing electrons is oxidation, gaining electrons is reduction.*
Redox
Another name for an oxidation-reduction reaction.
Oxidation
A complete or partial loss of electrons or gain of oxygen.
Reduction
a complete of partial gain of electrons or loss of oxygen.
Reducing Agent
The substance that looses electrons.
Oxidizing Agent
The substance that accepts electrons.
Corrosion
*Key Concept: Iron, a common construction metal often used in the form of the alloy steel, corrodes by being oxidized to ions of iron by oxygen.*
Oxidation Number
A positive or negative number assigned to an atom to indicate its degree of oxidation. *Key Concept: As a general rule, a bonded atom’s oxidation number is the charge that would have if the electrons in the bond were assigned to the atom of the more electronegative element.*
Oxidation Number Changes
*Key Concept: An increase in the oxidation number of an atom or ion indicates oxidation. A decrease in the oxidation number of an atom or ion indicates reduction.*
Identifying Redox Reactions
*key Concept: If the oxidation number of an element in a reacting species changes, then that element has undergone either oxidation or reduction. Therefore, the reaction as a whole must be a redox reaction.
Oxidation-Number-Changing Method
One balances a edox reaction by comparing the increase and decrease in oxidation numbers. See step by step instructions on page 648 and BATETYVID. *Key Concept: In a balanced redox equation, the total increase in oxidation number of the species oxidized must be balanced by the total decrease in the oxidation number of the species reduced.*
Half-Reaction
An equation showing just the oxidation or the reaction that takes place in a redox reaction.
Half reaction Method
One writes and balances theoxidation and half-reactions seperatly before combining them into a balanced redox equation. *Key Concept: To balance a redox reaction using half-reactions, write the seperate half reactions for the oxidation and the reduction. After you balance atoms in each half-reaction, balance electrons gained in the reduction with electrons lost in oxidation.* See pages 650 and 651
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