alkanes are nonpolar
hydrophobic (“water hating”) do not dissolve in water
boiling point increases as carbon #
alkanes less dense than
boiling pt branched alkanes vs linear
branched boiling pt less than linear
alkanes melting pt increases with
molecular weight and size
even # carbon vs. odd # carbon
even # carbon melting point higher than odd # carbon
melting pt of branched vs linear
branched melting pt greater than linear
Alkanes are derived mostly from
petroleum and petroleum by-products
catalytic cracking
heating alkanes with materials that catalyze cleavage of large molecules into smaller ones
catalytic cracking with hydrogen
Natural gas
70% methane, 10% ethane, and 15% propane,
methane hydrate
methane molecules trapped inside cages of water molecules
little reactivity with acids or bases
rapid oxidation at high temperatures, products are co2 and water
breaking into smaller molecules
Halogenation via heat or light
Alkanes react with halogens to form alkyl halides
different arrangements formed
by rotations about a single bond
eclipsed conformation has angle that is
dihedral e = 0°
staggered conformation has angle that is
e = 60°
lowest-energy conformation is
the staggered conformation, C -H bonds separated as much as possible
resistance to twisting
torsional strain
energy required to twist is called
torsional energy
steric strain
interference between two bulky groups, repUlsion
sawhorse structures
picturing conformations by looking down at an angle toward
the carbon-carbon bond
sawhorse structures
picturing conformations by looking down at an angle toward
the carbon-carbon bond
angle strain or Baeyer strain:
strain associated with compressing bond angles tosmaller (or larger) angles
ring strain
strain associated with the cyclic structure of a compound
spirocyclic compounds
two rings share only one carbon
no double or triple bonds
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