Organizational Citizenship Behavior
OCBs are behaviors that are discretionary, indirectly seen or recognized by the official compensation system, and as a whole encourage the effective functioning of an organization (Organ, 1988). It is also defined as an employee behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty and is therefore discretionary and not rewarded in the context of an organization’s formal reward structure (Konovsky & Pugh, 1994). Social exchange is an explanatory mechanism to obtain OCBs. It refers to relationships that entail unspecified future obligations (Blau, 1964).
Social exchange is a critical element in understanding OCBs. It is the theoretical basis and the starting point for OCBs to obtain. When HRM practices offered by the organization are perceived favorable by employees, they tend to reciprocate by OCBs (Organ, 1988). For example, when supervisors treat employees fairly, social exchange (Blau, 1964) and the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960) dictate that employees reciprocate, and OCBs are the avenue for employee’s reciprocation. There are five dimensions of OCBs (Organ, 1988).
First is altruism that involves all discretionary behaviors that have the effect of serving a specific other person with an organizationally important task or problems. The second is conscientiousness it is the extent that a person goes well beyond the satisfactory or required level in work attendance; the person exemplifies the brand of OCBs. Third is sportsmanship which the employees’ goodwill in tolerating less than ideal circumstances without “complaining and making a federal case out of small potatoes.
” The fourth dimension is civic virtue which is the behavior that shows a concern for participating in corporate life for example, by performing tasks that they are not required to perform, and doing so for the benefit of the organization. It also implies a sense o involvement in what policies are adapted and which candidates are supported. The last dimension is courtesy which involves such actions as “touching base” with those parties whose work would be affected by one’s decision or commitments.
Touching base refers to actions done by employees that their co-employees values (Organ, 1988). There are two broad categories of OCB. The first category is OCB-O. These are behaviors that benefit the organization in general. Examples of these are providing advance notice when unable to come to work or sticks to informal roles devised to maintain order (Williams & Anderson, 1991). The second category is OCB-I that benefits specific individuals and indirectly through this means contribute to the organization.
Examples include helping others who have been absent or providing informations that the absent employees missed (Williams & Anderson, 1999). Thus, altruism and courtesy are under OCB-I while sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue are under OCB-O. Antecedents of OCB Previous studies have shown that procedural justice (Alotaibi, 2001; Organ, 1988; Moorman, Niehoff, & Organ. , 1993), organizational commitment (Alotaibi, 2001; Mayer & Allen, 1997; Moorman et al. , 1993 ), and job satisfaction (Alotaibi, 2001; Moorman et al. , 1993; Tang,1998 ) leads to OCBs. Job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional state resulting from the assessment of his or her work (Locke, 1976; Steijn, 2002). Previous studies have shown that job satisfaction is the strongest measure that correlates to OCB (Organ & Konovsky, 1989). For example, a satisfied employee that perceives that he/she is under an unfavorable supervisor will have the initiative on making his co-employees satisfied with his job and perform more effectively. Negative external factors will not be a hindrance for employees to perform tasks outside their required duties for the organization (Robbins, 2005).