Organizational Citizenship Behavior
OCBs are behaviors that are discretionary, indirectly seen or recognized by the official compensation system and as a whole encourage the effective functioning of an organization (Organ, 1988). Since OCBs are individual behavior that are believed to contribute to the long-term success of the company, and which had previously been neglected when assessing employee performance this was chosen also as one of the dependent variables (Dyne, Graham, & Dienesch 1994).
Organ identified five dimensional constructs belonging to OCBs such as altruism (helping a specific other person with an organizationally relevant task or problem), courtesy (“touching base” with those parties whose work would be affected by ones decision or commitment. ), sportsmanship (contributing to organizational effectiveness and maximizing the total amount of stamina) , conscientiousness (organizations members carry out certain role behaviors well beyond the minimum required levels) and civic virtue (sense of involvement in what policies are adopted and which candidates are supported.)
HRM practices are critical in obtaining high levels of OCBs through generally defined obligations and long term commitment to employees (Morrison, 1996). Hence, this study hypothesizes that HRM practices are positively related to OCBs. HRM practices create a social exchange referring to voluntary actions of employees motivated by the rewards they are likely to receive (Blau, 1964). In a social exchange between a firm and an employee, each party is expected to provide and contribute to the employment relationship (Blau, 1964; Gouldner, 1960).
Following the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960), employees are expected to return behaviors that are not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system such as performance based program. Using the social exchange and norm of reciprocity as theoretical foundations; if the organizations provide the necessary programs and mechanism to assist employees in meeting their professional and personal needs (i. e. HRM practices), the employee develops behaviors that are beneficial for an organization which lead employees to manifest OCBs.
An organization that has effective HRM practices can encourage extra-role behaviors (Pare, Tremblay, & Lalonde, 2001). Statement of the Problem This study intends to determine if there is a significant relationship between HRM practices and employee attitudes and behaviors of employees working under the Scotiabank of Jamaica that is located in Jamaica. To answer the main problem, the following sub-problems are discussed in this study.
What is the perception of Scotiabank of Jamaica employeeson HRM practices? 2. What is the level of job satisfaction and organizational trust of Scotiabank of Jamaica employees? 3. What is the level of organizational citizenship behaviors manifested by Scotiabank of Jamaica employees? 4. Is there a significance in the relationship between perceptions of HRM practices and the following employee attitudes and behavior: a. Job satisfaction b. Organizational trust c. Organizational citizenship behavior