Organic Reactions

What is the reactivity of leaving groups in SN1 reactions?

 


 

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What makes a good Leaving group?

and what is the trend for leaving groups in a SN2 reation?

the substituent must be able to leave as a stable, weakly basic molecule.

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What does [image] stand for?
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What is [image]?
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What would the product be with inversion

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What is the general reactivity trend of carbon groups in regards to Sn2 reactions?

 

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[image]—>?
No Reaction Because of sp2 hybrid orbitals.
[image] —->
No reaction due to sp2 orbitals.
Explain the difference between Nucleophilicity and Basicity

Nucleophilicity:

The ability of a reacgent to donate an electron pair to another atom. This depends on solvent, substrates and reactant concentrations.

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Basicity:

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What is the best solvent for an Sn2 reaction
[image][image]
Describe The General Nucleophilicity Trends compared to basicity and Why this is true.

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What makes Sn1 Reactions different from Sn2 reactions and why?

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An Sn1 reaction involves the production of a carbocation, which results from the leaving group breaking off from the carbon atom.

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The carbocation is then (if in H20) attacked by the lone pairs on water to form an unstable intermediate.

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a hydrogen is the cleaved by another water molecule:

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What is the general trend in stability of carbocations?

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The more R groups that surround the carbocation can donate some electron cloud to stabilize it.

What is the geometry of a carbocation?

Trigonal planar

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[image]
no reaction. Alcohols are only reactive under acidic conditions.
What effect does solvent have on Sn1 reactions compared to Sn2 reactions?

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

[image]?

 

The primary carbocation is much less stable than a tertiary carbocation  so one of the methyl groups transfers over.

[image]

This creates a highly stable tertiary Carbocation.

 

The nucleophilic group can then attack the carbocation.

[image]

Why is this not a very reliable reaction?

[image]

Because Rearrangements and eliminations cause a multitude of products:

[image]

How is

[image]

Converted into a more reliable leaving group?

Using Mesylates

[image] [image]

Or using Tosylates:

[image]

[image]

With the addition of pyridine to remove the Cl

Since OMs and OTs are such good leaving groups, they make a great leaving group

 

What is the primary difference between Elimination and Substitution?

 

Substitution results in the replacement of a leaving group.

 

While Elimination results in the removal of a leaving group and a hydrogen with a base with a resulting double bond:

 

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What is the reaction order of the following reaction and why?

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The reaction is second order because it depends on the concentration of both the base and the substrate.

What geometric conditions must be followed to make this reaction occur?

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The leaving group and the leaving hydrogen must be anti-periplanar. This means they must be going in antiparallel directions.

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What is Zaitsev’s Rule relating to the following model:

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This rule states that many different regioisomers can result in an elimination reaction:

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What is the general stability of alkenes according to Zaitev?

 

More substituted alkenes Have a higher stability.

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What is the general trend for nucleophilicity in protic solvents?
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For An elimination reaction to occur, what position must the eliminated hydrogen be in?

The periplanar, or opposite side.

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How is

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Converted into a more reliable leaving group?

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How is

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Converted into a more reliable leaving group?

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Tosylates

What is Hofmann’s rule?

And state the two cases when this applies.

Most elimnation reactions follow Zaitsev’s Rule in which the most stable alkenes will form predominantly. under certain circumstances the major elimination product is the less substituted less stable alkenes.

 

Case 1

The bulky base that  (ie Tbu) is carrying out the reaction cannot reach the most stable carbon (in this case secondary) so it instead reacts with a beta hydrogen on a less stable carbon.

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In the second case, there is a bulky group attatched to the molecule in the vicinity of the carbon in question making it very difficult for a base to reach. The base will mainly go for the less crowded hydrogen

What is the difference between an E1 and an E2 Elimination?

An E2 elimination requires a base to remove the anti-periplanar hydrogen from the molecule.

 

In an E1 reaction, much similar to an SN1 reaction a carbocation is formed after an H20 molecule acts as either a nucleophile (which results in a substitution of -OH) or as a base (which will form an alkene product)

(*note that rearrangements can occur as well because the formation of a carbocation)

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Describe the relationship between nucleophile strength, base strength and the reaction each undergoes with primary alkyl halides.

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Describe the relationship between nucleophile strength, base strength and the reaction each undergoes with secondary alkyl halides.

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Describe the relationship between nucleophile strength, base strength and the reaction each undergoes with tertiary alkyl halides.

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Describe the relationship between nucleophile strength and the reaction each undergoes with allylic and benzylic groups.
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For the following, describe which reaction each would undergo and why:

Strong nucleophile

Weak Nucleaophile

Strong base

 

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For the following solvents, which reactions are best favored for each?

Polar protic (h20,MeOH)

Polar aprotic (DMSO,HMPA,DMF, acetonitrile)

non-polar (benzene,hexane)

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1)Since Sn1 reactions involve the exhange of hydrogen

Polar aprotics favour SN2 reactions because polar protic solvents tend to solavate ions and make them less available

3)

 

What makes a better leaving group?
A leaving group that can better stabilize its charge as an ion, is the better leaving group.

What is the effect of solvents on SN2 reactions?

 

Breifly describe an electrophilic addition:

What is Markovnikov’s Rule?

 

What is the major product of a reaction with pentene?

For symmetrical substrates IE ethene, the electrophilic addition products formed are exactly the same.

 

For asymmetric substrates IE pentene, two different addition products can be formed

The carbocation Intermediate will almost always be on the more stable more substituted carbon.

Therefore the product with the electrophile (negative end of dipole) on the least substituted carbon in the double bond will be the major product.

Can water react in a electrophilic addition reaction?

Yes but there must be at least a low pH since the reaction requires H30+ to happen:

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When will rearrangement happen in electrophilic additions?

If there is a tertiary carbon in the vicinity of a secondary carbocation (or primary carbon), one of the methyl groups will transfer over to the carbocation to increase stability. this can result in the formation of stereoisomers.

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How do halogens, with no net dipole, react with alkenes?

in a CCL4 solvent. When halogens are in the vicinity of the pi orbitals of a double bond, the electron clouds repel and this leaves a positive charge on the halogen. The halogen can the attack the bond.

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[image]WHYYY?
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What happens when water is used instead of CCL4 in a halogenation reaction?

 

When water is used as the solvent instead of CCl4, bromohydrin is formed instead. The nucleophilicity of bromine is greater that that of water, but water is present in MUCH greater concentrations. So it is easier for water ro attack.

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What is faster; intermolecular reactions, or intramolecular?

Intramolecular reactions are much quicker because the molecules that are reacting are much closer to each other.

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What are some common peracids?
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How is epoxidation carried out?

BY reacting with peracids, alkenes can adopt an oxygen from them forming a epoxide ring.

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What is the suitable reagent?

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What is the suitable reagent?

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or other peracids such as MCPBA

What is the suitable reagent?

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Halohydrin formation

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Which double bond will react quicker?

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The more electron rich double bond will react faster.

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Cyclopropanation

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How is dihalocarbene (used in cyclopropanation) formed?

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By reacting chloroform with a OtBu group

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What is simmons smith cyclopropanation and explain how  it works.

Simmons smith cyclopropanation uses Di-iodomethane along with a Zn(Cu) couple to form a carbenoid. This carbenoid can the  be reacted with a alkene in a stereospecific manner.

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What reagents and mechanisms will make this reaction occur?

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How does KMnO4 compare to OsO4 in terms of a dihydroxyhalogenation reaction?
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Oxomercuration results in anti addition.

understand the mechanism of oxomercuration
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This process is known as demercuration:

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What are the benefits of  using the oxymercuration-demercuration over acid catalysed reaction?

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oxymercuration does not result in rearrangements.
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Hydroboration

Results in anti-markovnikov regiochem

Stereochem results in a syn addition.

What common forms can BH3 be in?
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Follows a similar mechanism to alkene addition

What is the mechanism at work for

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Halogenation

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