Organic Chemisty- Exam 2





Chiral vs. Achiral

Chiral- A nonsuperimposable mirror image


Achiral- A mirror image that can be superimposed

Fisher Projection
vertical lines are projected backwards, while the tops of the atom stays the same
two atoms that are nonsuperimposable are enantiomers of each other.
L- vs. D- isomer
in a L- isomer, the last -OH is on the left hand side.
in a D- isomer, the last -OH is on the right hand side.
the most abundant of all organic compunds in nature. are sugars, are are made up of C, H, & O.
The simplest carbohydrate. cannot be split or hydrolyzed into a smaller carbohydrate.
consists of two monosaccharides joined together. Can be split.
naturally occuring polymers consisting of many monosaccharide units.
Naming monosaccharides by aldose and ketose
Aldose- the carbonyl group is on the first carbon(-CHO)
Ketone- the carbonyl group is on the second carbonas a ketone(C=O)
how to draw a Haworth Structure
1: turn the open chain clockwise
2: fold the carbon chain(-OH group on carbon 5 goes on carbon 1)
alpha and beta on a haworth structure
the structure is alpha if the -OH on C1 is down. It is beta if the -OH on C1 is up
Oxidation of Monosaccharides
oxidizes in the presence of Cu2+.
adds an O to C1.
reduction of monsaccahrides
reduces in the presence of H+.
takes away an O.
reducing sugar
monosaccharides that reduce another substance.
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