Organic Chemistry (Podcast 22.1&22.2)

organic chemistry
the study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties
hydrocarbons
compounds composed of carbon&hydrogen
saturated
carbon-carbon bonds are all single-alkanes
NOC (number of carbons)-meth
1
NOC-eth
2
NOC-prop
3
NOC-but
4
NOC-pent
5
NOC-hex
6
NOC-hept
7
NOC-oct
8
NOC-non
9
NOC-dec
10
cyclic alkanes
carbon atoms can form rings containing only carbon-carbon single bonds
unsaturated hydrocarbons
contains carbon-carbon multiple bonds
alkenes
hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond
Alkynes
hydrocarbons containing a carbon-carbon triple bond
substitution reactions
primarily where halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms
Addition Reactions
weaker bonds are broken and new stronger bonds are formed to atoms being added
Aromatic hydrocarbons
a special class of cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons
Nomenclature for Alkenes-root hydrocarbon name ends in…
-ene
With more than…carbons, double bond is indicated by the… numbered carbon atom in the bond.
3, lowest
Polymer
large, usually chainlike molecules that are built from small molecules called monomers
Addition Polymerization
monomers “add together” to form the polymer with no other products
Condensation Polymerization
a small molecule, such as water, is formed for each extension of the polymer chain (take a hydrogen off)
cis
hydrogens on same side
trans
hydrogens on opposite sides (across)
Monomer-Ethylene, Polymer…
Polyethylene
Monomer-Vinyl chloride, Polymer…
polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Monomer-Tetrafluoroethylene, Polymer…
Teflon (pans)
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