Organic Chemistry I: Functional Groups

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Alkanes:

Contain only single bonds

 

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Alkenes:

Contain at least one double bond

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Alkynes:

Contain at least one triple bond

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Aromatics:

Contain a benzene ring, a 6 carbon ring with alternating single and double bonds.

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Alcohols:

Contain a hydroxyl group (O-H) off of a carbon

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Phenols:

Contain at least one hydroxyl group (O-H) attached directly to a benzene ring

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Carboxylic Acids:

Contain a double bonded oxygen and a hydroxyl (O-H) attached to the same carbon.

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Ketones:

Contain a double bonded oxygen to a carbon.

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Aldehydes:

Contain a double bonded oxygen attached to a carbon. Differ from Ketones by carbonyl (C=O) located at the end of the chain.

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Esters:

Contain a double bonded oxygen and a single bonded oxygen attached to the same carbon.

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