Organic Chemistry

As the carbon chain length increases ………points and …………….points ……………..
MAs the carbon chain length increases mellting points and boiling points increase.
Among molecules with the same functional group dispersion forces ………………. with molar mass.
Among molecules with the same functional group dispersion forces increase with molar mass.
Molecules with…………… ……….. …… take more energy to separate.
Molecules with larger molar mass take more energy to separate.

Molecules with many polar groups will dissolve in …………solution.

Molecules with many non-polar groups will dissolve in …………..solutions.

Molecules with many polar groups will dissolve in polar solution.

Molecules with many non-polar groups will dissolve in non-polar solutions.

WHy do alcohols have stronger bonds and higher boiling points than aldehydes and ketones?

Aldehydes and ketones do not have OH groups and therefore cannot form hydrogen bonds.

(C=O bonds can still hydrogen bond but are not as common or effective)

Isomeric acids have ………… boiling points than their esters.

Isomeric acids have higher boiling points than their esters.

Esters do not have an OH group so they cannot hydrogen bond.

What are the main steps in the production of ethanol?

1.Grains soaked in water and begin to germinate producing enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of starch into glucose.

2. Yeast is added to the mixture.

3. The glucose passes into the yeast through the cell wall where enzymes catalyse the fermentation of the glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide.

4. The products then pas out through the cell wall.

Equation for the hydrolysis of polysaccharides to monosaccharides?

(C6H10O5)n + nH2O = nC6H12O6

 

Equation for the hydrolysis of disaccharides to monosaccharides.
C12H22O11 + H2O = 2C6H12O6
Equation for the fermentation of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
Primary alcohol?
OH group is bonded to a carbon which is bonded to only one other carbon.
Secondary Alcohol?
OH group is bonded to a carbon which is bonded to two other carbons.
Tertiary Alcohol?
OH group is bonded to a carbon which is bonded to three other carbons.
….ary and ……..ary alcohols will oxidise with acidified dichromate solution.
Primary and secondary alcohols will oxidise with acidified dichromate solution.
Primary alcohols oxidise to form an ……………. and then a ………………………
Primary alcohols oxidise to form an aldehyde and then a carboxylic acid.
Secondary alcohols oxidise to form a ……………..
Secondary alcohols oxidise to form a ketone.
Equations for oxidation of primary alcohols.

R-CH2-OH = R-CHO (aldehyde)

R-CH=O = R-COOH (carboxylic acid)

 

with Cr2O72-/H+

Equation for oxidation of secondary alcohols

RR-CH-OH = RR-CO (ketone)

 

with Cr2O72-/H+

Equation for reduction of acidified dichromate solution

Cr2O72- = Cr3+

Colour change orange to green.

Equations for the oxidation of tertiary alcohols.
Do not oxidise.
When aldehydes are heated with an acidified solution of dichromate they undergo oxidation to ………………..
When aldehydes are heated with an acidified solution of dichromate they undergo oxidation to carboxylic acids.
How can acidified dichromate solution and tollen’s reagent be used to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones?

When dichromate solution is reduced it turns from orange to green, and when tollen’s reagent is reduced to metallic silver it forms a silver mirror.

 As alderhydes oxidise and ketones do not, an aldehyde will cause a colour change or a mirror to be formed and a ketone will not.

Molecular formula of carbohydrates.

Cx(H2O)y or CxH2yOy

(often x=y but not always)

Molecular formular of glucose?
C6H12O6
Molecular formular of disaccharides?
C12H22O11
Molecular formular of polysaccharides?
(C6H10O5)n
Why are simple carbohydrates more soluble on water than polysaccharides?
All carbohydrates have OH groups which allow them to hydrogen bond with water, however the molar mass of polysaccharides is too large to mix with water.
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