organic chemistry

the condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol produces what two products?
ester and water
adding water to split molecules
physical properties of esters

– lower b.p/ melting point

– lower secondary forces than carboxylic acids

– weaker attractive forces

– lower polarity

– lower secondary attractive forces

– hydrogen bond well with water

– sweet fruity odor/ flavor

nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids, the purines and pyrimidines, are classified as..
heterocyclic amines (contains and O2 or nitrogen atom in the ring)
the water solubility of carboxylic acids and amines can be regulated by a solubility switch that can turn water solubility off and on for both types of molecules. the main determining factor of the switch is…





– tempertature

– degree of mixing/ stirring


nicotine is the active addictive amine found in tobacco, considered to be a mild CNS stimulant. the acute toxic dose of nicotine is surprisingly low, but smoking cigs reduces the amount of nicotine absorbed into the bloodstream. nicotine occurs in tobacco naturally as…..

a built-in insecticide, it protects the plant by killing bugs that might eat the leaves. 



– a built-in stimulant for the plants metabolism.

– a built-in depressant for the plant’s metabolism.


the principle molecule in the process by which cells use energy contains both ester and anhydride bonds made from phosphoric acid. this molecule is……
carboxylic acids are acids because……
– the carboxyl group donates a proton and becomes a carboxylate anion.;
Highly reactive carboxylic acid derivative that consists of 2 carboxylic acid molecules that have a molecule of water removed is……
an Anhydride;
alpha- hydroxy acids are commonly used in cosmetic products to treat dry flaky skin and to remove wrinkles. they work by eating away dead skin cells. what is an example of an alpha-hydroxy acid??

lactic acid



– pyruvic acid

– propanoic acid

a soap molecule….

– is a carboxylate salt

– is amphipathic

– has a nonpolar end and a polar end

define enantiomers
– steroisomers that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other
define diastereomers

stereoisomers that are not enantiomers= they aren’t mirror images of each other


monosaccharides/ function

– serve as building blocks

– synthesize larger saccharides

– can’t be hydrolyzed into smaller saccharides

– taste sweet

– glucose, fructose, galactose

– can form H-bonds with themselves and H2O

oligosaccharides functions

– larger than monosaccharides

– taste sweet

– sucrose/ lactose

polysaccharide function

– hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides

– starch, cellulose, glycogen, chitin


– most abundant monosaccharide in nature

– stored as glycogen in the liver

– blood sugar/dextrose


– levulose, added to d-glucose to form dissaccharide sucrose

– in fruits and table sugar

D- galactose
– bonded to D-glucose in the dissaccharide lactose (milk)

– monosaccharides with an aldehyde group

– reducing sugar D/T the sugar being the reducing agent in the oxidation reaction


– monosaccharide with a ketone

– reducing sugar D/T the sugar being the reducing agent in the oxidation reaction


– malt sugar, corn sugar

– hydrolysis of starch by amylase

– hydrolysis of maltose uses maltase (diglucose)

– reducing sugar


– partial hydrolysis of cellulose from celluase

– reducing sugar


-milk/ sugar in mammal milk

– energy source for the young

– D-galactose + D-glucose

– reducing sugar

– can inherit lactose intolerance



– most abundant in nature

– fruits/ veggies in diet

– table sugar

digestion of maltose, lactose, and sucrose

– disaccharides can’t be absorbed from the G.I tract

– must be digested to monosaccharides by maltase, lactase, and sucrase


 -prodominant form of stored energy.

– come from animal fats/ plant walls

– exsess lipids that arent being used for energy= stored as fat

– soluble in non-polar/ low polarity solvents

– insoluble in WATER

(lipid functions)



animal fat/ plant oil= stored energy not immediately used

(lipid functions)



cholesterol is primary structure that surrounds cells and organells.

-cell recognition

(lipid functions)


steroid/ sex hormones

chemical messengers that alter activity in target cells

(lipid functions)


lipid soluble vitamins

-A, D, E, K

(lipid functions)


bile salts

needed for digestion of lipids in the G.I tract
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