Organic Chemistry

Energy levels
Schrodinger discovered that each of these corresponds to a different mathematical description of the electron wave.
Orbitals
A wave function (psi). In terms of probability (psi^2) of finding an electron at some point relative to the nucleus, as the volume inside the boundary surface of an atom, or the region in space where the probability of finding an electron is high.
Wave Functions
The solutions to arithmetic expressions that express the energy of an electron in an atom.
Principal Quantum Number
The quantum number n of an electron that describes its energy level. An electron with n = 1 must be an s electron; one with n = 2 has s and p states available.
Boundary surfaces
The surface that encloses the region where the probability of finding an electron is high (90-95%).
Spin/Spin Quantum Number
One of the four quantum numbers that describe an electron. An electron may have either of two different spin quantum numbers, + 1/2 or – 1/2.
Pauli Exclusion Principal
No two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers. An equivalent expression is that only two electrons can occupy the same orbital, and only when they have opposite spins.
Nodal surfaces
A plane drawn through an orbital where the algebraic sign of a wave function changes. The probability of finding an electron at a node is zero.
Hund’s Rule
When two orbitals are of equal energy, they are populated by electrons so that each is half-filled before either one is doubly occupied.
Valence Electrons
The outermost electrons of an atom. For second-row elements these are the 2s and 2p electrons. The number of these is equal to the number of the element’s group number.
Valence Shell
The maximum number of electrons in the ___________ for period 2 elements is 8.
Ionization energy
Amount of energy required to remove an electron from some species.
Endothermic
Absorbs heat
Exothermic
Gives off heat
Electron Affinity
Energy change associated with the capture of an electron by an atom
Electrostatic/Coulombic attractions
Attractive forces between two oppositiely charged particles.

aka ionic bond

Ionic bond
Chemical bond between oppositely charged particles that results from the electrostastic attraction between them
Bond dissociation energy
For a substance A:B, the energy required to break the bond between A and B so that each retains one of the electrons in the bond
Polar covalent
A shared electron pair bond in which the electrons are drawn more closely to one of the bonded atoms than the other
Electronegativity
A measure of the ability of an atom to attract the electrons in a covalent bond toward itself. Flourine is the most electronegative element.
Electronegative/electropositive
___________ element attracts electrons.

___________ element donates them.

Electrostatic potential map
The charge distribution in a molecule represented by mapping the interaction energy of a point positive charge with the molecule’s electric field on the van der Waals surface.
Nonpolar
No polarization of electron distribution.
Bond dipole moments
The dipole moment of a bond between two atoms.
Dipole moment
Product of the attractive force between two opposite charges and the distance between them. This has the symbol (mew) and is measured in Debye units (D).
Debye, D
Unit used for measuring dipole moments. 1 D = 1 X 10 ^ -18 esu*cm
Connectivity
Order in which a molecule’s atoms are connected. Synonymous with constitution
Isomers
Different compounds that have the same molecular formula.
Constitutional Isomers
Isomers that differ in respect to the order in which the atoms are connected. Butane and isobutane are examples.
Stereoisomers
Isomers with the same constitution but that differ in respect to the arrangement between the orbitals of the electron donor and acceptor.
Structural Isomers
Same as constitutional isomer.
Condensed structural formulas
Structural formula in which subscripts are used to indicate replicated atoms or groups.
Bond-line formulas/Carbon skeleton diagrams
Formula in which connections between carbons are shown but individual carbons and hydrogens are not.
Contributing structures/Resonance hybrid
The various resonance structures that can be written for a molecule.
Localized
Lewis formulas show electrons as ________.
Shared between two atoms in a covalent bond or unshared electrons belonging to a single atom.
Delocalization
Association of an electron with more than one atom. The simplest example is the shared electron pair or covalent bond. This is important in conjugated pi electron systems, where an electron may be associated with several carbon atoms.
Tetrahedral angle
4 bonds at an angle of 109.5
Strong acids/strong bases
An acid that is stronger than H30+

A base that is stronger than HO-

Oxonium ion/hydronium ion
The species H30+
Inductive effects
An electronic effect transmitted by successive polarization of the sigma bonds within a molecule or ion.
Substitution
Chemical reaction in which an atom or a group of a molecule is replaced by a different atom or group.
Nucleophiles
An atom or ion that has an unshared electron pair which can be used to form a bond to carbon. These are Lewis bases.
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