Organic Chemistry

What is organic chemistry?
Organic Chemistry is the chemistry of the carbon compounds.
Why is carbon important in organic chemisry?
Because it can form chains.
What is a homologus serie?
A group of chemical compunds that have the same chemical properties, the same general formula, and they show a steady change in their physiscal properties as we go along the group.
What is the general formula of alkanes?
CnH2n+2
Name the first 10 alkanes.
Methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane.
How is crude oil separated into compounds? What properties on the compounds allow us to separate them?
1- Fractional Distillation
2- Their boiling point.
What are the 2 properties of alkanes?
1- they are not very reactive but they burn easily.
2- Cracking. Heat and a catalyst can break bigger molecules into small ones.
Why is cracking in alkanes important?
Because it makes usefull small molecules from less valuable ones, and it makes alkenes.
What is the general formula of alkenes.
CnH2n
What is the functional group of alkenes?
A double bond C=C
What is an isomer?
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.
Give a test for alkenes?
Dissolving the alkene with bromine. Because alkenes will decolourize the solution
Mention properties in plastics that make them useful.
Easy to shape, flexible, good insulators, low density, easily coloured, cheap to produce.
What are disadvantages of using plastics?
They are non-biodegradeable, and they can also harm wild life.
What does burning fossil fuels cause?
Formation of CO2 and global warming, formation of S02 and acid rain, fossil fuels will run out, pollution from oil spill.
What is the general formula of alcohol.
CnH2n+1OH
How is ethanol made?
From ethene and steam, or by frementation.
What is the formula when ethanol is made from ethene and steam?
CnH2n+H2O—>C2H5OH+2CO2
what is the formula of making ethanol by fermentation?
C6H12O6—>2C2H5OH+2CO2 ( fermentation also needs enzymes from yeast)
What are the short term problems due to alcohol consumption?
Loss of coordination. Alcohol can be a poison. Headache, sickness, vomits, etc. Antisocial behaviour.
Which are the long term problems due to alcohol consumption?
Damage to most organs of the body. Dependency. Breakdown of families.
What are the reactions of alcohols?
They burn,oxidation using oxidizing agents, and in condensations reactions.
What are condensations reactions in alcohol used for?
They can be used to make polyesters.
what comes out of a fractionating column from the top to the bottom?
Fuel gas, petrol, paraffin, light gas oil, diesel, lubricating fraction, bitumen.
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