Organic Chem Lab Final

4 steps to experiment:
1. theoretical planning
2. experimental setup and execution of procedure
3. separation and purification
4. product identification
separation:
filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, column chromatography, distillation
Purification
recrystallization, distillation, drying, etc
boiling/melting point
idicate purity; comparison to literature values of known compounds for structure determination.
boiling point is a range
X boone value by 1.03 to get literature value
Gas Chromatography (GC)
shows number of components present and % of each and possible structure determniation if pure sample is available
Gas Chromatography (GC)
shows number of components present and % of each and possible structure determniation if pure sample is available
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)
determines the carbon-hydrogen framework of molecule
Infrared spectroscopy (IR)
determines functional groups present in a compound
mass spectroscopy (ms)
gives molecular weight of compound
GC graph is
peaks vs. retention time
retention time is
time it takes for component of mixture to pass through the column
never water to clean what in a IR?
salt plates b/c they will dissolve
the most common NMR is
H/proton NMR
simple distilation is most useful for what?
purifying a liquid that contains either non-volatile impurites or small amounts of impurities w/ higher or lower bp
vaporization
turns liquid to vapor
condensation
turns vapor to liquid
vacuum distillation
separates liquids that boil above 150 degrees C from nonvolatile impurities and liquids that boil 25degrees C above the first
Fractional distillation
separates liquids soluble i n each other that boil less than 25 degrees from each other
steam distillation
isolates tars, oils etc that are insoluble in h2o at all temps.
usually natural products are steamed distillated
liquid-liquid distillation
uses separatory funnel.
separate two immiscible liquidds from a mixture.
vacuum filtration
removes solids from a liquid solution
recrystallization
used to purify solid compounds
melting point determination
uses melting point apparatus.
pure substances have range of 1-2 degrees celsius
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