organic chem. Flashcard

Strong acids equal?

Acids that completely dissociate in water to make hydronium H3O.
What are the three main rules for resonance structures?

  1. Atoms are fixed and cannot move. (only the distribution of the electrons in the molecule changes from one resonance structure to the next.
  2. Only lone-pair electrons and pi electrons (which are only found in 2x and 3x bonds) can move.
  3.  You can’t break the octet rule.( the sum of an atoms lone-pairs and bonds cannot be greater than four).

bases that dissocitate completely to form OHHydronium ions are called ?

Strong bases
Which element has not;electrons or neutrons, only a single proton at the nucleus?
H+ , Hydrogen
The most common acid-base definition used in organic chemistry is ?
Brownstead-Lowry definition of acids and bases
A brownstead-Lowry Acid is a molecule that donates/accepts a proton (H+) to a base?


A Brownstead-Lowry base is a molecule that ________ a proton from an Acid?
A lewis Acid is a molecule that _____ electrons?
A lewis base is a molecule that _____ electrons?
Lewis Acids are called _______, which means ;electron Lovers;.
Lewis bases are called _______, which means ;nucleus Lovers;?
Strong acids have ______conjugate bases?
The three most important features that stabalize negative charges are ____,_____and_____?
electronegativity, hybridization and size of the atom upon which the negative charge is located.
Which is more acidic HF or HI?; Why?
HI, because even though Flourine is more electronegative, Iodine is a much larger atom, and as a rule size trumps electronegativity.
Aldehydes are often represented as _R-?_____?
________ refer to atoms other than carbon and hydrogen?
______ are organic compounds that contain one or more halogens?
Ketones generally end with the suffix_______?


Sugars contain many ______ groups?
Generally, names of thiols (SH) end with what suffix?


An aldehyde is thought of as a carbonyl at the ______ of a molecule, and a ketone is thought of as a carbonyl in the _________ of a molecule?
End, Middle

The names of carboxylic acids generally end with the suffix ______?

-oic acid,; as in ethanoic acid more commonly called acetic acid
Esters generally end with the suffix ______?
-oate, as in propyl pentanoate (pinapples) note esters are generally sweet smelling compounds.

Molecules that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other are called _____?

Give an example?

Enantiomers,; your right hand is the enantiomer of your left hand because your hands are mirror images of each other.(put your right hand up to a mirror, and you’ll see what looks like a left hand).
Molecules with the same atom connectivity but with different orientations of those atoms in space are __________?

Malecule that are not superimposable on their mirror images are said to be _______?

Molecules that can be superimposed on their mirro images are said to be ________?

Chiral, achiral (rhymes with viral with a hard "K"), Note: only chiral molecules have enantiomers.

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