Organic Cehmistry

buffer
a chemical that will accept or donate H+ in a solution to resist changes in pH (usually a weak acid)
-if acid is added it will accept
-if base if added it will donate
organic molecule
must contain Carbon and Hydrogen
pure hydrocarbon
ONLY carbon and hydrogen, is non polar
functional groups
ALL POLAR
OH- alcohol
NH2- amino (basic)
COH- carbonyl
COOH- carboxyl (acidic)
PO4- phosphate
monomer
simple organic “building block” (molecule)
polymer
2 or more joined monomers
carbon based molecules
wide variety of geometric shapes are possible (shape affects function)
can have:
1)linear chains vary in length
2) branched chains vary in length
3) positions of bonds and functional groups can vary
4) can form rings (5 sided minimum)
isomer
molecule with same chemical formula but different structures
dehydration synthesis
(loses water) alcohol and hydrogen interact to make water and leave covalent bond
hydrolysis
addition of water to split a polymer
4 macro molecule groups
carbohydrates- for energy and structure
lipids- energy, structure, and hormones
proteins- structure, enzymes, hormones, and energy
nucleic acids- information storage and transfer
carbohydrates
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in general 1:2:1 ration, general formula (CH2O)x
monosacchorides
2,3,4,5, and 6 carbon molecules are common, type of monomer, ex: glucose
disaccharides
2 linked monosaccharides, type of polymer, ex: sucrose
polysaccharides
many linked monosaccharides,very large, type of polymer, ex: starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
starch
“chain” of many linked glucose, storage form of energy in plants
glycogen
“branched chain” of many glucose, storage form of energy in animals
cellulose (fiber)
numerous “chains” of glucose twisted around each other like a rope or cable, structure in plants(cell wall)
chitin
fiber like cellulose but different monomers, structure in animals
lipids
general category of all very large “nonpolar” macromolecules
fats
type of lipid with
3 carbon glycerol molecule with 1,2,or 3 fatty acid chains linked to it (most common is 3 chains)
saturated fats
fatty acid chains with NO carbon to carbon double bonds
unsaturated fats
fatty acid chains have carbon to carbon double bonds
phospholipid
type of lipid with
glycerol, 2 fatty acid chains, a phosphate group (-), and a choline group (+)
-glycerol+phosphate (head)= polar (hydrophilic)
-fatty acid chains (tail)= nonpolar (hydrophobic)
steroids
type of lipid with
large nonpolar molecules composed of many linked rings (sterol rings)
proteins (polypeptides)
polymers made from amino acid monomers
amino acid group
carboxyl group, amino group, side chain “R” group (20 varieties, only one that changes )
levels of protein structure
primary structure
secondary structure
tertiary structure
quaternary structure
primary structure
the sequence of amino acids in the protein
secondary structure
any bending or shape caused by H-bonds along the backbone
tertiary structure
any bonding between R-groups
– covalent, ionic, H-bond, or nonpolar interactions (in water)
quaternary structure
2 or more linked tertiary structures
most common
proteins are very sensitive to the…
environment around them. any change in temperature, pH, and salinity will cause a protein to denature
nucleic acids
polymers built of nucleotide monomers
dna bases
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thynine
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