Markovnikov Addition
When forming a carbocation, must be the most stable position.
Cummulated Diene
Dienes where the double bonds are right next to each other
Cisoid Diene
Diene in cis form. Must be in this form for reaction to occur.
Conjugated Diene
Double bonds are separated by a single bond
Syn Addition
X and Y are added to the same side of the double bond
Addition of -OH or -O and heat to a structure with a halogen to form a double bond. (Removes halogen)
When an -OH is removed from an alkane to form a double bond (alkene)
Carbocation stability
Benzoic C > Allylic C > 3 > 2 > 1 > CH3
Free-radical stability
Benzoic C > Allylic C > 3 > 2 > 1 > CH3
Allylic Carbocation
One of the most stable carbocations
Cyclopropanation Reaction
A reaction (using CH2I2) where a cyclopropyl group forms where a double bond was present
Epoxidation Reaction
Reaction using MCPBA where an epoxide group forms where a double bond was present.
Anti-Markovnikov Addition
Addition of a halide, OH, or other group to an alkene on the least substituted position of the double bond.
Halohydrin Reaction
Addition of OH and Br or Cl across a C=C bond in an anti conformation
electron rich diene
A diene that has groups attached that donate electrons toward the double bonds making it more positive near the DB
electron poor diene
a dienophile in which electrons are drawn away from the double bond by attached groups
Oxymercuration-demercuration reaction
A reaction in which an alcohol is prepared from an alkene using Hg(OAC)2, H20, NaBH4, and KOH. It follows Markovnikov addition but rearragement can’t occur.
Hydroboration-oxidation reaction
A reaction in which an alcohol is prepared from an alkene but is anti-Markovnikov (B2H6 in THF and H202, KOH)
[4+2] cycloaddition
Reaction in which two pi bonds are lost and 2 sigma bonds are gained.
Kinetic controlled vs. Thermodynamic controlled
Kinetic-faster (1,2 major) <25 degrees C -------
Thermodynamic-more stable (1,4 major) > 25 degrees C
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