First two elements formed?
hydrogen and helium
Define vitalism?
organic compounds were only those that came from living organisms, and only living things could synthesize organic compounds through intervention of a vital force
Define isotopes?
atoms that have the same number of protons in their nuclei but have differing atomic masses because their nuclei have different numbers of neutrons
Define valence shell?
outermost shell
Define isomers?
different molecules that have the same molecular formula
Define constitutional isomers?
different compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the sequence to which their atoms are bonded
How are ionic bonds formed?
by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another
How are covalent bonds formed?
by sharing of electrons between atom of similar electronegativities to ahieve the configuration of a noble gas
Define octet rule?
the tendency for an atom to achieve a configuration where its valence shell contains eight electrons
Define ionic bonds?
an attractive force between oppositely charged ions
Definite electronegativity?
a measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons
Molecules are composed of atoms joined exclusively or predominantly by what type of bond?
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