Orbitals

n
principal quantum number, size and energy of orbital
l
orbital angular momentum quantum number, shape of orbital; can be 0, 1, 2, … n-1
ml
magnetic quantum number, orientation in space; -l, … l
Radial distribution function
probability that the electron will be found at a particular radius regardless of the direction; is always zero at the nucleus
Pauli exclusion principle
no more than 2 electrons may occupy any given orbital. If 2 electrons are in 1 orbital, their spins must be opposite. No 2 electrons in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers.
Atomic radii
Radii increase down a group because outermost electrons occupy shells farther from the nucleus. They decrease across a period because new electrons are in the same shell of the atom. The increased effective nuclear charge draws electrons in.
Ionic radii
All cations smaller than parent ion. Anions larger than ions.[image]
Ionization energy
First ionization energy decreases down a group, increases from left to right across a period. It decreases down a group because the outermost electron occupies a shell farther from the nucleus and is less tightly bound. the 2nd ionization energy is always higher than the first. [image]
Electron affinity
Energy released with an electron is added to a gas-phase atom. Eea is highest towards upper right of PT. Incoming electron occupies a p-orbital close to the nucleus. The 2nd Eea of O and S is negative because the 2nd electron is repulsed by the negative charge already present. [image]
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