Oceanography

Oceanography
Branch of Earth science that studies the ocean
Marine Science
Branch of Earth science that studies the ocean
Geological Oceanography
Marine geology or geological oceanography involves geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal margins
Biological Oceanography
Marine biology is the scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water.
Physical Oceanography
Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters
Chemical Oceanography
Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth’s oceans
Oceanographer
A person who studies the ocean.
Ferdinand Magellan
He assembled a fleet of ships and, despite huge setbacks, his own death included, proved that the world was round.
Benjamin Franklin
Among Franklin’s other inventions are swim fins.
Charles Darwin
Darwin was a British scientist who laid the foundations of the theory of evolution and transformed the way we think about the natural world.
Challenger Expedition
The voyage of HMS Challenger, from 1872 to 1876.For the first time, scientists could prove that life existed on the deep sea bed. They collected specimens from different depths of water all over the world.
Greek and Roman Contributions
This group was later joined by the Greeks who recognized that the oceans have currents as they ventured out of the Mediterranean into the Atlantic Ocean. A hundred years later, the foundation of celestial navigation was being developed at the Library of Alexandria (the oldest known university), Egypt, by a Greek named Erastosthenes. He developed the concept of locating places with lines of latitude and longitude, and hence, produced the first chart of the Mediterranean “world.” Around 200 B.C., he used an ingenious method to calculate the earth’s circumference, overestimating to less than 200 km of the true circumference. This calculation revealed that the Earth was very large.
Fridtjof Nansen
1882 he shipped on the sealer Viking to the east coast of Greenland. On this trip of four and a half months, the scientist in him made observations on seals and bears which, years later, he updated and turned into a book; but at the same time the adventurer became entranced by this world of sea and ice.
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