Objective: I

Length: 760 words

Atom – the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties
of the element
Example: the formation of a sodium chloride crystal
Molecule – The smallest part of any substance which has the qualities of
that substance, and which can exist alone in a free state.


Example: a molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one of
oxygen.


Organelle – A cell structure that carries out a specialized function in the
life of a cell.


Example: the nucleus, chromosomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton and vesicles.


Cell – Smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independently
or as part of multicelled organisms
Example: Malaria parasite
Tissue – a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a
similar structure and function.


Example: Distribution of death domain containing protein genes
Organ – A part of the body that consists of different types of tissue and
that performs a particular function.


Example: the kidneys, heart and brain.


Organ System – two or more organs interacting chemically, physically, or
both in ways that contribute to organism’s survival.


Example: Nervous System and Digestive System
Multicelled Organism – individual consisting of interdependent cells
typically organized in tissues, organs, and organ system.


Example: Modern vascular plant that is similar in structure.


Population – Group of individual of the same kind occupying the same area.


Example: a zebra

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herd
Community – populations of all species occupying the same area.


Example: the people of Bridgeport Connecticut
Ecosystem – Community and its physical environment.


Example: The people of Bridgeport and our surrounding.


pic pic
Adipose TissueHyaline Cartilage
pic pic
Smooth Muscle CellsFibrocartilage
pic
Digestive System
Objective II
Atomic Number – the number of protons in a element
Atomic Weight – the average mass of the atoms of an element
Neutron – the particle in the atomic nucleus with the mass = 1 and charge =
0
Neutron
Protons – a component of an atomic nucleus with a mass defined as 1 and a
charge of +1.


Protons
Electrons – a negatively charged component of an atom.


Electrons
Hydrogen – chemical element that exists as a gas at room temperature
Hydrogen
Carbon – nonmetallic chemical element known by the symbol C that is the
fundamental building block of material in living organisms
Carbon
Oxygen – symbol O, colorless. Odorless, tasteless slightly magnetic gaseous
element
Oxygen
Sodium – sodium Na, Highly reactive, silvery white extreme soft metallic
element.


Sodium
Chlorine – symbol CI, greenish – yellow gaseous element.


Chlorine
Isotopes – atoms that are vary in neutron numbers
Isotopes – C14
Isotopes – C12
Ions
Chloride Ion
Sodium Ion
11p+
10e-
Bonding
Ionic Bond – an association of two ions that have opposing charge.


NACI
Covalent Bond – sharing of a pair of electrons
Molecular Hydrogen
Polor Covalent Bond – atoms of different elements don’t exert the same pull
on shared electrons.


Polarity of the water molecule water’s temperature – stabilizing effects
water cohesion
Water solvent properties
Hydrogen Bonding – weak attraction between an electron negative atom and
taking part in a second polar covalent bond.


pic
Functional Group
Aldehydes
Alcohol -OH
Ketone
Organic Acid
Amino
Phosphate
Molecules and Macromolecules
pic Hydrophilic
pic Hydrophobic Tail
pic Condensation
picHydrolysis
Carbohydrates – A chemical compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen. Starch, sugar and cellulose are the most common carbohydrates that
supply energy.


Monosaccharide – simple sugars consist of a single sugar molecule and
cannot be further decomposed by hydrolysis.


Disaccharide – Sugars formed by the combination of two simple sugar units.


Polysaccharides – Complex sugars, consisting of multiple linked simple
sugars.


pic pic
Glucose
Fructose
picGalactose
picpic
picpic Sucrose
Starchpic
Cellulose
Lipids – Hydrophobic that’s the one property they have in common. This
group of molecules includes fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, steroids and
some other related compounds.


pic Fatty Acids pic
pic pic
pic pic Steroids
pic
Bile- liver secretion required for fat digestion.


Emulsification – of chime a suspension of fat droplet coated with bile
salts.


Proteins – organic compound of one or more polypeptide chains folded and
twisted into a globular or fibrous shape overall.


picAmino Acid
R Groups – side chains that have functional groups each type of side chains
contributes in a major way to distinctive properties of each amino acid
Primary Structure – when a cell synthesizes a protein, enzymes link amino
acids, one after the other by peptide bond.


Denaturation – breaking weak bonds of a protein or any other large molecule
disrupts its three dimensional shape.


Enzymes – the type of protein or one of the few RNAs that catalyze
reactions between substances, most often at functional group, enzymes also
breaks down the food in our body.


Nucleic acid – single or double stranded chain of four kinds of nucleotides
joined at their phosphate.


pic DNA pic RNA
pic
Objective IV
Life originated in water. Many organisms still live in it. Cell shape and
internal structure depend on it.


Without water there would be no oceans, no lakes, no rivers, no rain, snow,
hail clouds, polar ice caps. Water is every where it defines our planet.

It is involved in just about every process on earth one way or another.

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