O Chem

Alkanes

Tetrahedral 

All σ Bonds

 sp3 About Carbons

109 angles

Depiction Types

Lewis

 

Condensed

 

Abbreviated Line

Reactions of Alkanes

Combustion: Produces CO2+H2O

 

Substitution: One atom replaces H on a hydrocarbon. Req. catalyst or UV.

 

Dehydrogenation (elimination): Makes alkenes and alkynes + H. Requires heat, catalyst, pressure.  

 

Cracking

 

Isomerization

Cycloalkanes

Ring Structure

 

No double bonds

 

bond angles dependent upon ring size

 

sp3 Hybridization

Chiral Carbon
A Carbon atom with 4 groups attached.
Optical/Stereoisomer

Mirror image

Rotate planar polarized light

Saturated Hydrocarbon
No double bonds between carbon atoms
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
At least one double bond between carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon.
cis-

Geometric Isomer

 

Larger portion of CH groups on same side of double bond.

Trans-

Geometric Isomer

Larger portion of CH groups on opposite sides of main chain.

Alkenes and Alkynes


-Bonds

 

-Hybridization

 

-Geometry

1 pi and 1 sigma

 

sp2

 

trigonal planar

Alkynes

 

Bonds

 

Hybridization

 

Geometry

Triple Bond: 1σ 2∏

 

sp hybridization

 

linear about triple bond

Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Reactions

Hydrogenation

 

Halogenation: double or triple bond opens up to add both atoms of a halogen.

 

Addtion of Hydrohalogen: H-rich get H-richer

 

Addition of water: Alkenes form alcohols. OH enters at double bond H fills in the hydrogen richer C.

Benzene

 

Bonds

 

Hybridization

 

Geometry

 

 

1 double, 2 single

 

sp2 hybridization

 

trigonal planar 120 degree 

 

 

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Aniline (Aminobenzine)

C6H5NH2

[image]

 

Benzoic Acid

C6H5COOH

 

[image]

 

Phenol

C6H5OH

 

[image]

Toluene

C6H5CH3

[image]
Primary alcohol
[image]
Naphthalene
O Chem Redox Steps

1. Assign a zero for each bond to another carbon atom.

2. assign a -1 for each bond to an H atom.

3. Assign a +1 for each bond to N, O, S, or halogen

Add them up to get each C’s oxidation number.

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Secondary Alcohol
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Tertiary Alcohol
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Ortho-xylene
[image]
Meta-xylene
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Para-xylene

Alcohols

;

Suffix

;

Major IM forces

;

Solubility

;

;

“-ol”

;

Hydrogen Bonds

;

Very soluble at lower molar masses;

Alcohol Synthesis

;

;


;

;

;

HOH+alkenes

;

Methanol from CO+H2


;

Alcohol Chemical Properties

;

;

;

;

Oxidation:

Primary alcohols can be oxidized to aldehydes and carboxylic acids.

Secondary alcohols can be oxidized to ketones.

Tertiary alcohols do not oxidize.

;

Elimination (dehydration):

Remove H2O

;

Substitution:

Halogens can replace -OH’s


Ethers

 

Suffix

 

Bond Angle

 

Major IM force

” _ether”

 

109

 

dipole-dipole (low BP)

Amines

 

Suffix

 

Odor

 

Acid or Base

 

Major IM Force

 

Solubility

 

 

 


“-amine”

 

Fishy

 

weak base

 

H Bonding

 

very soluble up to 3 or 4 C’s

Aldehydes

;

Suffix

;

Major IM Force

;

Synthesis

;

;

“-al”

;

Dipole-dipole

;

Oxidation of primary alcohols w/ permanganate or dichromate.

;

Ketones

;

Suffix

;

Synthesis

;

Major IM Force


“-one”

;

Oxidation of secondary alcohols

;

Dipole-dipole

Carboxylic Acids

;

Suffix

;

Group

;

Major IM Forces

;

Synthesis

;

Solubility

“-oic acid”

;

-COOH

;

Dipole-dipole and H-Bonding

;

Oxidizing aldehydes, oxidizing primary alcohols

;

High solubility

Esters

;

Suffix

;

Group

;

Synthesis

;

Properties

“-ate”

;

-COO-

;

Esterification: organic acid + alcohol

;

Sweet, fruity odor

Amides

;

Suffix

;

Group

;

;

;

;

“-amide”

;

-CON-

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