What is the hierarchy of knowledge?
Laws (invariable depictions of relationships among variables or phenomena)
Theories (abstract generalizations explaining variables or phenomena)
Concepts (abstract representations of observed variables or phenomena)
Hypotheses (quantitative predictions of relationships)
Stories (qualitative patterns of experiences)
What are some examples of laws?
Conservation of mass – mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
Boyle’s – the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure [or vice versa]
What is a theory?
abstract generalization concerning a set of interrelated concepts that specify the nature of a relationship between variables or the experience of phenomena
What is the purpose of a theory?
aids in understanding a problem; gives meaning to research findings, values, beliefs, relationships, and experiences; provides a framework that describes, explains, or predicts variables or phenomena
What are some examples of theories?
Death and dying
What is a concept?
abstract representation describing observations of variables or phenomena (Construct – invented or “constructed” complex concept)
What is the purpose of a concept?
enables communication of meanings about objects, characteristics, behaviors, or processes; provides a framework that describes and links variables or phenomena
What are some examples of concepts?
What is a framework?
theoretical or conceptual structure of a study
What is the purpose of a framework?
aids in defining theory or concept; aids in determining design; communicates how variables or phenomena “fit together”
Where is the framework found in a report?
What is an example of a framwork?
Theory of Infection
Means of Transmission
Portals of Entry
Susceptibility of Host
What are some models of nursing?
10+ models involving Nursing Process developed 1980s-2000s
Focus on 4 concepts: person (human beings), environment, health, nursing [vary in definition, emphasis, and linkage]
Roy’s Adaptation Model
Orem’s Self-care Deficit Model
Rogers’ Science of Unitary Beings
Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming
Watson’s Theory of Caring