Nursing Research – Chapter 8, Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks, Dr. Epley

What is the hierarchy of knowledge?
Laws (invariable depictions of relationships among variables or phenomena)

Theories (abstract generalizations explaining variables or phenomena)

Concepts (abstract representations of observed variables or phenomena)

Hypotheses (quantitative predictions of relationships)
OR
Stories (qualitative patterns of experiences)

What are some examples of laws?
Nature

Gravity

Conservation of mass – mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction

Boyle’s – the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure [or vice versa]

What is a theory?
abstract generalization concerning a set of interrelated concepts that specify the nature of a relationship between variables or the experience of phenomena
What is the purpose of a theory?
aids in understanding a problem; gives meaning to research findings, values, beliefs, relationships, and experiences; provides a framework that describes, explains, or predicts variables or phenomena
What are some examples of theories?
Evolution
Personality
Stress
Infection
Aging
Pain
Development
Death and dying
Intelligence
Change
What is a concept?
abstract representation describing observations of variables or phenomena (Construct – invented or “constructed” complex concept)
What is the purpose of a concept?
enables communication of meanings about objects, characteristics, behaviors, or processes; provides a framework that describes and links variables or phenomena
What are some examples of concepts?
Love
Depression
Grief
Self-efficacy
Learned helplessness
Change
Resilience
Health promotion
Nursing process
What is a framework?
theoretical or conceptual structure of a study
What is the purpose of a framework?
aids in defining theory or concept; aids in determining design; communicates how variables or phenomena “fit together”
Where is the framework found in a report?
Intro
What is an example of a framwork?
Theory of Infection
Pathogen

Means of Transmission

Portals of Entry

Susceptibility of Host

What are some models of nursing?
10+ models involving Nursing Process developed 1980s-2000s

Focus on 4 concepts: person (human beings), environment, health, nursing [vary in definition, emphasis, and linkage]
Examples
Roy’s Adaptation Model
Orem’s Self-care Deficit Model
Rogers’ Science of Unitary Beings
Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming
Watson’s Theory of Caring

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