Nuclear Energy

alpha particle
a positively charged particle emitted from certain radioactive nuclei; it consists of two protons and two neutrons ans is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom.
band of stability
the region on a neutron vs. proton plot where stable nuclei are found.
beta particle
an electron that is emitted from the nucleus of an atom when a neutron breaks apart.
film badge
a radiation detection device worn by workers routinely exposed to radiation; the device consists of several layers of photographic encased in a plastic or metal holder.
the splitting of a nucleus into smaller fragments, accompanied by the release of neutrons and a large amount of energy.
the process of combining nuclei to produce a nuclei of greater mass.
gamma ray
a high-energy photon emitted by a radioisotope.
Geiger counter
a device that uses a gas-filled metal tube to detect radiation.
the time required for one-half of the nuclei of a radioisotope sample to decay into products.
Ionizing Radiation
radiation with enough energy to remove electrons off some of the atoms of a bombarded substance to produce ions.
neutron absorption
a process that decreases the number of slow-moving neutrons in a nuclear reactor; this is accomplished by using control rods made of a material such as cadmium.
neutron activation analysis
a proceducre used to detect trace amounts of elements in samples by bombarding the sample with neutrons from a radioactive source.
neutron moderation
a process used in nuclear reactors to slow down neutrons so the reactor fuel captures them to continue the chain reaction.
a particle with the mass of an electron, but with a positive charge.
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive source.
the process by which nucle emit particles and rays.
isotopes that have unstable nuclei and undergo radioactive decay
scintillation counter
a device that uses a phosphor-coated surface to detect radiation.
the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another element.
transuranium elements
any of the elements on the periodic table with an atomic number above 92.
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