Nonprofit marketing

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Markets can be…
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A group of people A geographic area People who behave a certain way People who have certain characteristic
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Marketing is…
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The process of planning and executing programs designed to influence the behavior of target audiences by creating and maintaining beneficial exchanges for the purposes of satisfying individual and organizational objectives.
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Segmenting Markets
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Selecting a part of a market that is more likely to respond to a marketing offer. A segment is more homogeneous in choosing and other behavior than the larger market.
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Target Market Segment
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A market segment that is chosen over others to be the focus of a marketing plan.
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Positioning of the Market Offer
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Choosing the characteristics that will be given a brand or other market offering as it will be perceived by a potential market segment
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Differerntiation
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Real or perceived differences of the brand, product or service offered by the marketer
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Cost Leadership
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Lowest cost offerings in the marketplace
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Focus
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Choosing a very specific market to serve or focusing on a niche market. Can also being the very best at something by specializing in the highest quality of offering
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Building a Marketing Strategy
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One or more target market segments A clearly defined competitive position A carefully designed and coordinated marketing mix
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Marketing Mix
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Product, Price, Promotion, Place (Distribution)
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Product
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Goods, services and ideas that meet or exceed the needs of the target markets
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Price
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What must be paid by the buyer to obtain the product, whether it be financial, temporal, or psychological
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Promotion
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That which is communicated by the marketer about the marker offering to the target market
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Place (distribution)
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How, when, and where a market offering is made available to the target market
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Brand
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A name, logo, slogan, or other reference that identifies goods and services, thus enabling potential customers to differentiate market offerings Key to the recognition or personality of the organization, product, or ideas offered by the marketer How the market can find a market offering a second time, if satisfied or otherwise How a member of a market segment can know the difference between one organization and another
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Marketing Researcg
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Learning all that can be useful about a market, using qualitative and quantitative methods to understand the needs of potential target market segments
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Objective Behavior-Specific Measures
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Buying occasion Doer/ Non-doer strategy Usage rate Loyalty Status
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Complex General Objective Measures
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Social class Family life cycle Status change Lifestyles Geoclustering
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Psychological Measures
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Personality Values Stages of change Benefits
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Choose a strategy for repositioning
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Find the desirable position for the target market Identify degree and direction of needed change in position Select strategy to accomplish the reposition
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Choose tactics (Marketing Mix)
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Select tactics for repositioning Choose degree of application of tactics Review and revise tactics as needed
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The Strategy Change Cycle
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Setting the organizations direction Formulating broad policies Making internal and external assessments Paying attention to the needs of key stakeholders Identify key issues Developing strategies to deal with each issue Planning review and adoption procedure Implementing planning Making fundamental decisions Taking action Continually monitoring and assessing results
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Strategic Planning Process
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1. Initiate and agree upon a strategic planning process 2. Identify organizational mandates 3. Clarify organizational missions and values 4. Assess the organization’s external and internal environment to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats 5. Identify the strategic issues facing the organization 6. Formulate strategies to manage these issues 7. Review and choose the strategic plan or plans 8. Develop an effective organizational vision 9. Develop an effective implementation process 10. Reassess strategies and the strategic planning process
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Innovation
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New approaches to old problems
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Low cost
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Lower expenditure of time or money
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Differentiation
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Evoked choice becaue of high level of recognition
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Mission
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Basic reason for the organization to exist; what is the organization trying to do
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Objectives
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The statements of the broad directions the organization is taking
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Goals
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Operationalized and measurable form of objectives
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Organizational Culture
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The norms, roles, and mores of the organization that are shared by stakeholders of nonprofit
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Relevant Environments
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Publics to be served and competitive organizations that are related to the nonprofit organization being considered
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Public
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A distinct group of people, organizations, or both whose actual or potential needs must in some sense be served
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Input publics
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Donors, suppliers, regulators
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Internal publics
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Management, board, staff, volunteers
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Intermediary publics
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Merchants, agents, facilitators, marketing firms
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Consumer publics
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Clients, local publics, activists, general publics, media
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Competition
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May consist of other nonprofit or for profit organizations that offer similar or substitute services, missions, or volunteering opportunities
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Learning Theory
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Stakeholders learn from experience
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Motivational Theory and Personality Theory
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Stakeholders are motivated to behave various ways (Maslow heirarchy of needs)
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Social Conformity Theory
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Stakeholders seek social conformity and acceptance
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Cognitive Theory
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Stakeholders process information cognitively as they decide Recognize needs Gather information Evaluate alternatives Make choice(s) Act on choice Evaluate the consequences of choice made
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Attributes of Decision-Making
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Routine Choice/Simplified choice/ complex choice High involvement/low involvement Evoked set/ inert set/ inept set
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The BCOS Model
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Benefits- What they get Costs- What they give Others-How others influence them Self-Assurance-Whether one can act on their choice
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Markets
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Market trends, market share, market potential, market characteristics
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Image of the Organization
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How seen by stakeholders, how seen by potential stakeholders, positives and negatives, awareness
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Promotion
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Copy research, media research, advertising effectiveness
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Programs
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New programs, program features, concept tests
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Big decision myth
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Only for the biggest decisions
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Survey Myopia Myth
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Only field research is good research
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Focus Group Myth
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Only focus group was affordable and useful
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Big bucks myth
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If you do not spend a lot, you cannot have good information
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We can’t wait myth
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Research takes too long
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Sophisticated researcher myth
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Research must be very complex or it cannot be helpful
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Types of Research
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Descriptive-tells us what is seen by the stakeholder or by an outsider looking at the stakeholder Explanatory-tells us why what we see is happening Associative- what factors happen together Causative-A causes B, by some percentage Reasons why- what factors affect A to cause B Predictive-tells the future occurrence or behavior
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Traditional Marketing Research Process
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1. Define the problem 2. Develop hypothesis and research plan 3. Collect data 4. Analyze and interpret data 5. Prepare and communicate results
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Qualitative Research
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Focus groups; in-depth interviews
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Experimentation
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Independent and dependent variables, “what-if scenarios”
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Snowball sampling
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Starting sample identifies others and others
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Piggyback studies
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Adding questions to “omnibus studies”
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Volunteer researcher
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Inexpensive, but limited
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Why do marketing research?
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Because as a manager you are TOO CLOSE to the organization and cannot objectively see things the way stakeholders see them
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A Brand is…
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An name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers, and to differentiate them from those of competitors.
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For customers, a brand can…
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Reduce customer search costs Reduce buyer’s perceived risk Reduce social and psychological risks Reduce social and psychology risks associated with owning and using the “wrong” product
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For sellers, a brand can…..
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Encourage repeat purchase Help introduce new products Encourage effective promotion Allow premium pricing Work with market segmentation Facilitate brand loyalty
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Strategic Brand Management
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Brand Identity Identity Implentation Managing the brand over time Managing the brand portfolio Leveraging the brand Brand equity Strategic brand analysis
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Tracking Brand Performance
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Performance objectives Select methods for evaluation Identify problem products Decide how to resolve the problem
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Brand Equity
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A set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name, and symbol, that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/ or to that firm’s customers
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Measuring Brand Equity
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Loyalty Perceived quality/ leadership measures Associations/differentiation Awareness Market behavior
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Brand Identity options
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Specific product branding Product line branding Corporate branding combination branding
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Brand leveraging strategies
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Line extension Stretching the brand vertically cobranding licensing overleveraging
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Marketing Offer
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A proposal by a marketer to make available to a target customer a desirable set of positive consequences if, and only if, the customer undertakes the desired action -the benefits
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Core Product
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The basic essence of the need being filled by the nonprofit organization
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Tangible Product
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A product having features, styling, quality, packaging, and branding
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Augmented Product
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What is added to the product after it leaves the factory
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Major stages in New product development
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Idea Generation Idea Screening Concept Development and Testing Marketing Strategy Formulation Business Analysis Offer Development Market Testing Introduction of the Offer to the Target Market
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Innovation Characteristics
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+Relative Advantage +Compatibility -Complexity +Divisibility +Communicability
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Why New Offerings Fail
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Leader pushes through the idea, despite lack of supporting research Poor systems for evaluating new offerings Poor forecasting and market research Poor planning Offering is not distinctive Poor value proposition Development costs are unexpectedly high Competitive response is surprisingly intense Promotion is inadequate
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Targeting
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Undifferentiated (mass) marketing Differentiated Concentrated Mass customization
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Segmenting
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Objective General Objective behavior-specific Complex General objective Psychological
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Objective general
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Demographics Age Generation Gender Sexual orientation Income Race and ethnicity Geographic location
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Objective behavior-specific
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Occasion Doer/non-doer status Usage rate Loyalty status
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Complex general objective
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Social class family life cycle status change lifestyles geoclustering

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