Nicole Kumiega Medical Terminology Ch 7 – Terms

erythrocytes
red blood cells

leukocytes
white blood cells

thrombocytes
platelets

hemoglobin
iron-protein substance which carries oxygen on red blood cells

granulocytes
leukocytes with grains in their cytoplasm

agranulocytes
leukocytes with no grains in their cytoplasm

neutrophils
a leukocyte that is a phagocyte which fights disease by engulfing tissue and bacteria

eosinophils
a leukocyte that helps defend the body against an allergic reaction

basophils
a leukocyte that releases substances to respond to allergic reactions (histamine and heparin)

histamine
substance released by a basophil to increase blood flow

heparin
substance released by a basophil to prevent blood from clotting

monocytes
a leukocyte that is the largest and fights disease by phagocytosis

lymphocytes
a leukocyte that fights disease by phagocytosis and can produce antibodies to destroy bacteria

coagulation
clotting

agglutination
when red blood cells clump together and inhibit blood flow

hemolysis
when red blood cells are destroyed

hemolytic disease of a newborn
destruction of newborn or fetal red blood cells caused by a reaction between Rh- blood and fetal Rh+ blood

lymphatic system organs
lymph fluid, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymphocytes, thymus, spleen, and tonsils

lymph fluid
a clear fluid that consists of proteins, electrolytes, fats, glucose, and lymphocytes

lymph vessels
collect the fluid from the blood capillaries into the interstitial spaces and transport to larger vessels

lymphatic ducts
right lymphatic ducts and thoracic duct – where all lymph fluid eventually drains into

lymph nodes
large vessels that filter old, dead cells and bacteria in the lymph fluid

thymus
a lymph and endocrine gland located in the mediastinum – stimulates the production t cells which attack foreign cells

spleen
largest lymph vessel which filters lymph fluid and remove pathogens (disease causing substances)

tonsils
lymph tissue that are the first lines of defense against the bacteria entering the body through the nose and mouth

agglutination
clumping together of cells

coagulation
process of blood clotting

corpuscle
any blood cell, red or white

hematologist
physician specialist in the study of blood, blood forming organs, and related disorders and diseases

hematology
the study of blood and blood forming organs

hemostasis
stopping or controlling the flow of blood

pathogen
any substance that causes disease

phagocyte
cell that engulfs and destroys or digests bacteria or other unwanted substances

phagocytosis
process of a cell engulfing and destroying bacteria or other unwanted substances

acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
a syndrome of infections that occur during the final stage of infection by HIV; progressive loss of immune system funtion

adenoiditis
inflammation of the adenoids

anemia
deficiency in the quantity or quality of blood

aplastic anemia
deficiency of red blood cell production due to a disorder of the bone marrow

dyscrasia
any abnormal condition of the blood

embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign substance or a blood clot

embolus
circulating blood clot

erythremia
an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells

erythrocytopenia
decrease in the number of erythrocytes

granulocytosis
an increase in the number of granulocytes

hemolysis
destruction or breakdown of red blood cells

hemolytic anemia
decrease in the quantity or quality of blood due to the premature destruction of red blood cells

hemophilia
bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of coagulation factors in the blood in which the blood does not clot

hemorrhage
excessive loss of blood, internal or external

Hodgkin’s disease
malignant neoplasm of lymph tissue

iron deficiency anemia
anemia caused by an inadequate amount of iron for the production of hemoglobin

leukemia
abnormal increase in the number of immature white blood cells caused by a malignancy of the blood forming organs

leukopenia
decrease in the number of leukocytes

lymphadenitis
inflammation of a lymph gland

lymphadenopathy
any disease of a lymph gland

lymphoma
a tumor of the lymph tissue, usually malignant

mononucleosis
an abnormal increase in the number of monocytes accompanied by enlargement of the spleen and lymph nodes

multiple myeloma
a malignant neoplasm of the bone marrow

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)
malignant neoplasm of lymph tissue that cannot be characterized as Hodgkin’s disease

pancytopenia
decrease in the number of all blood cells

pernicious anemia
anemia resulting from a decrease in the formation of mature erythrocytes

polycythemia
an increase in the number of erythrocytes in the blood

polycythemia vera
an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and thrombocytes

purpura
hemorrhages beneath the skin

rouleaux
abnormal stacking of erythrocytes

septicemia
presence of disease causing bacteria in the blood

sickle cell anemia
hereditary form of hemolytic anemia characterized by crescent shaped erythrocytes

spherocytosis
abnormal condition of round or spherical shaped erythrocytes

splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen

thalassemia
hereditary form of hemolytic anemia

thrombocytopenia
decrease in the number of thrombocytes

thrombosis
presence of a blood clot within a blood vessel

thrombus
a blood clot

tonsillitis
inflammation of the tonsils

bleeding time
a laboratory blood test that measures the time required for bleeding to stop

blood transfusion
administration of blood or components of blood to replace the loss of blood

bone marrow biopsy
removal of a sample of bone marrow for microscopic examination

complete blood count (CBC)
a blood test that analyzes the quantity and quality of the cellular components of blood

erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)(sed rate)
a blood test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle out of unclotted blood

lymphangiogram
a record or picture of an x-ray examination of lymph vessels

prothrombin time (PT)
a blood clot test that evaluates the ability of the blood to clot, also called protime

red blood cell count (RBC)
measures the number of red blood cells in a sample of blood

hemoglobin (Hgb)
measures the number of grams of hemoglobin in a sample of blood

hematocrit (Hct)
measures the percentage of red blood cells in a specific volume of blood

red blood cell indices
mathematical calculations that identify erythrocyte size and erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration

white blood cell count (WBC)
measures the number of white blood cells in a sample of blood

white blood cells differential (diff)
measures the percentage of each type of white blood cell in a sample of blood

platelet count
measures the number of platelets in a sample of blood

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