NEU GenChem I 9/9-9/10 Toher

What is chemistry?

Chemistry is the study of matter, energy and energy transformations that occur in chemical and physical change.

Define matter

Matter is anything which possesses mass or takes up space (aka volume)

Define mass

Mass is the measurement of the amount of matter present

Define weight

Weight is the measurement of gravitational attraction (typically created by the Earth) upon a given object.

Define energy

Energy is defined as the ability to do work.

Give the equation for work

 Work equals force x distance.

Define force

Force is defined as the push or pull on an object.

Give the equation for force

Force equals mass times acceleration (F=ma)

What does a kg(m/s2) equal?

It is equal to a Newton (and vice versa).

What does the unit for work (kg(m2/s2)) equal?

It is equal to one Joule (and vice versa).

How many Joules are in one calorie?

4.184 J

How many ways can a kilocalorie be represented and how are they represented?

There are two ways that kilocalories can be represented in shorthand: either using Kcal or Cal (specifically with an uppercase c).

List all energy forms given in lecture

Thermal, electrical, light and nuclear.

Define element

An element is a pure substance comprised of one type of atom.

What does brinclhof stand for and what is special about what it stands for?

Brinclhof stands for Br2, I2, N2, Cl2, H2, O2 and F2 (Bromine, Iodine, Nitrogen, chlorine, hydrogen, oxygen and flourine). These elements, when not bonded with any other element, always appear as diatomic (there are always at least 2 atoms of each element present).

Define compound

A compound is a pure substance comprised of 2 or more elements.

Define molecule

A molecule is an independent structural unit consisting of one or more atoms chemically bonded together.

True or false: both elements and compounds can exist as molecules

True

Define monotomic

To be monotomic is to be comprised of one atom (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn or Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon)

Define triatomic

Triatomic means comprised of 3 atoms (such as O3, ozone)

Define polyatomic

Polyatomic means comprised of many atoms (such as C6H12O6, glucose)

Define mixture

A mixture is two or more substances (elements, compounds or other mixtures) which are physically intermingled (compound can vary).

Define homogenous

Homogenous means uniform throughout.

Define heterogenous

Heterogenous means a mixture in which the components are not uniformly combined.

What does 1mL (milliliter) equal?

It is equal to one cubic centimeter (cm3)

Define density

Density refers to the amount fo matter present in a specific region of space.

What is the equation for density?

Density = mass / volume.

What did Democratus propose in terms of atomic theory?

He proposed that matter must be comprised of indivisible particles which are representitive of the substance they comprised.

Elaborate on the origin of the word atom

The Latin word “atomos” means indivisible and by Democratus’ theory of atomic structure atoms were the smallest unit of matter possible.

What did Aristotle propose in terms of atomic theory?

He proposed that there were 4 elements: fire, earth, water and air. Fire and earth are dry, earth and water are cold, water and air are wet and air and fire are hot.

For approximately how long did Aristotle’s theory of atomic structure last?

Aristotle’s theory was accepted as valid for 2,000 years.

What did Antoine Laurent Lausisier propose in terms of atomic theory?

He proposed the Law of Conservation of Mass.

What does the Law of Conservation of Mass state?

The LCM states that the total mass of reacting components does not change in a chemical reaction.

What contribution to atomic theory did Joseph Proust present?

He proposed the Law of Definite Proportions (aka LDP)

What does The Law of Definite Proportions state?

The LDP states that a chemical compound always possesses; the same elements in;the % by mass.

What law did John Dalton propose in regards to chemical reactions?

He proposed the Law of Multiple Proportions (aka LMP).

What does the Law of Multiple Proportions propose?

The LMP states that the same 2 elements can react in more than just one ratio by mass.

What were the 5 parts of Dalton’s atomic theory?
1. Matter is comprised of tiny particles called atoms; 2. Atoms are indivisible; 3. Atoms of one element can’t be converted into another element; 4. Atoms of an element are identical and 5. compounds exist from combining atoms from different elements.
What parts of Dalton’s atomic theory were correct?

Part 1: matter is comprised of tiny particles called atoms and part 5: Compounds exist from combining atoms from different elements.

What parts of Dalton’s atomic theory are incorrect?

Part 2: Atoms are indivisible; part 3: atoms of one element can’t be converted into another elemnet and part 4: atoms of an element are identical.

Tagged In :

Get help with your homework


image
Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from studyhippoHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out