Networking Concepts and Applications Essay

One of the cardinal differences between different web types is their geographical range. A local country web. or LAN. is made up of a smaller group of computing machines linked together and located in the same little country such as a room. a floor or a edifice. A anchor web. or BN. is a larger web which connects multiple LANs. WANs. MANs or other BNs together and can run from a few 100 pess to stat mis in size. Metropolitan country webs. or MANs. usually range in size from a few stat mis up to thirty stat mis and LANs and BNs from different countries to each other every bit good as to WANs. Wide country webs. or WANs. can be 100s or 1000s of stat mis in size and connect MANs and BNs across these distances.

Question 14: Explain how a message is transmitted from one computing machine to another utilizing beds.

The message is foremost created at the application bed utilizing a package application. This package translates the message based on the protocol being used to reassign the message and places the necessary information along with the message into a Protocol Data Unit ( PDU ) which is besides known as a ‘packet’ . This package is so passed on to the Transport Layer. The conveyance bed. utilizing its ain Transmission Control Protocol. or TCP. takes the package from the application bed and topographic points it in a TCP package along with whatever extra informations the TCP section requires. and passes it along to the Network Layer.

The Network Layer. as with the old beds. has its ain protocols. In this instance we’ll use the Internet Protocol. or IP. IP determines the following finish as the message is routed through the web. places the TCP package inside an IP package along with any extra required informations and base on ballss in on to the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer will once more hold its ain protocols and regulations for conveying the message and will arrange the message with the necessary start and halt markers. add mistake look intoing informations. topographic point the IP package within a new package based on the Data Link Layer protocol being used and pass it on to the Physical Layer.

The Physical Layer is whatever physical hardware is being used to convey the message to the other computing machine. The hardware so converts the informations passed to it into a series of electrical pulsations and sends them across the web to their finish. The electrical pulsations are so captured by the receiving hardware. which so passes the Data Link Layer package to be unpacked by the Data Link Layer. From there the Network Layer’s package is passed on to the Network Layer to be unpacked. The Transport Layers package is passed on to the Transport Layer which eventually passes the Application Layer’s package on to be processed by the Application Layer.

Question 17: Describe two of import informations communications standards-making organic structures. How do they differ?

One major informations communications criterions doing organic structure is the Telecommunications Group. or International Telecommunications Union. The Telecommunications Group is criterions puting group based out of Geneva with members from about 200 states and focal points on puting proficient criterions.

Another is the Internet Engineering Task Force. or IETF. is an organisation which sets the criterions which govern how much of the cyberspace operates.

While both of the organisations are similar in that they are standard doing organic structures focused on informations communications. they differ in the range of their focal point every bit good as the construction of rank. The ITU’s rank is made up of representatives from different states around the universe and focal points on proficient criterions for international telecommunications. The IETF’s rank wholly different. the IETF rank is unfastened to anyone and anyone may go to their meetings and receive their mailings. They besides have a much narrower focal point and entirely set criterions sing the operation of the cyberspace.


FitzGerald. J. . & A ; Dennis. A. ( 2009 ) . Business information communications and networking. Hoboken. New jersey: John Wiley.

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