Neoclassical Literature Essay

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The eighteenth-century England is besides known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason. The Enlightenment Movement was a progressive rational motion which flourished In France and swept through the whole Western Europe at the clip. the motion was a promotion of the Renaissance of the fifteenth and 16th centuries. Its intent was to edify the whole universe with the visible radiation of modern philosophical and artistic thoughts. The enlighteners celebrated ground or reason. equality and scientific discipline. They held that reason or ground should be the lone. the concluding cause of any human idea and activities.

They called for a mention to order. ground and regulations. They believed that when ground served as the yardstick for the measuring of all human activities and dealingss. every superstitious notion. unfairness and subjugation was to give topographic point to “eternal truth. ” “eternal justice” and “natural equality. ” The belief provided theory for the Gallic Revolution of 1789 and the American War of Independence in 1776. At the same clip. the enlighteners advocated cosmopolitan instruction. They believed that human being were limited. Manichaean. progressive. and yet capable of reason and flawlessness through instruction.

If the multitudes were good educated. they thought. there would be great opportunity for a democratic and equal human society. As a affair of fact. literature at the clip. to a great extent didactic and moralising. became a really popular agencies of public instruction. Famous among the great enlighteners in England were those great authors like John Dryden. Alexander Pope. Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele. the two innovators of familiar essays. Jonathan Swift. Daniel Defoe. Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Henry Fielding and Samuel Johnson. In the field of literature. the Enlightenment Movement brought about a resurgence of involvement in the old classical plant.

This inclination is known as neoclassicism. Harmonizing to the neoclassicists. all signifiers of literature were to be modeled after the classical plant of the ancient Greek and Roman authors and those of the modern-day Gallic 1s. They believed that the artistic ideals should be order. logic. restrained emotion and truth. and that literature should be judged in footings of its service to humanity. This belief led them to seek proportion. integrity. harmoniousness and grace in literary looks. in an attempt to please. instruct and right human existences. chiefly as societal animate beings. Thus a polite. urbane. witty. and rational

art developed. Neoclassicists had some fixed Torahs and regulations for about every genre of literature. Prose should be precise. direct. smooth and flexible. Poetry should be lyrical. epical. didactic. satiric or dramatic. and each category should be guided b its ain rules. Drama should be written in the Heroic Couplets ( iambic pentameter rhymed in two lines ) ; regularity in building should be adhered to. and type characters instead than persons should be represented. John Bunyan Like most working work forces at the clip. Bunyan had a deep hate for the corrupted. hypocritical rich who accumulated their wealth “by hook and B criminal.

” As a stout Puritan. he had made a painstaking survey of the Bible and steadfastly believed in redemption through religious battle. It was during his 2nd term in prison that he wrote The Pilgrim’s Progress. which was published in 1678 after his release. Bunyan’s manner was modeled after that of the English Bible. With his concrete and life linguistic communication and carefully observed and vividly presented inside informations. he made it possible for the reader of the least instruction to portion the pleasance of reading his novel and to live over the experience of his characters.

Bunyan’s other plants include Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners ( 1666 ) . The Life and Death of Mr. Badman ( 1680 ) . The Holy War ( 1682 ) and The Pilgrim’s Progress. Part II ( 1684 ) As Milton was the main Puritan poet. so Bunyan was the main Puritan author of Prose. Bunyan was born in a tinker’s household. and he himself was a tinker. He did non hold much instruction and at 16 he joined the parliamentary ground forces and so became a sermonizer. Like Milton he was put into prison in the period of the Restoration. but remained at that place much longer.

He might hold written his work The Pilgrim’s Progress in prison although it was published in prison although it was published in 1678 after his release. The Pilgrim’s Progress is written in the old fashioned mediaeval signifier of fable and play. The book opens with the author’s dream in which he sees a adult male “with a book in his manus. and a great load upon his back” . The adult male is Christian the Pilgrim. the book is the Bible. and the load on his dorsum is the weight of secular attentions and concerns.

It tells how Christian starts his pilgrim’s journey from his place to the land of Heaven. and of his experiences and escapades on his journey. In the western universe the book has normally been read and appreciated as spiritual fable. though critics have noted that the many allegorical figures and topographic points Christian meets on the manner are such as might hold been seen in Bunyan’s twenty-four hours on any English market route and that the landscape and houses in the narrative seem to be no other than those of Restoration England. It gives a existent image of how life was during the seventeenth century.

It is a faithful bird’s-eye contemplation of Bunyan’s age. The book’s most important facet is its sarcasm. the description of the Vanity Fair. Here Bunyan gives a symbolic image of London at the clip. in bourgeois society. all things are bought and sold. including honor. rubric. land. lecherousnesss ; there rip offing. mischief. slaying. and adultery prevail. The penalty of Christian and Faithful for contemning things in the Vanity Fair may hold its significance in touching to Bunyan’s perennial apprehensions and imprisonment for sermon.

After all. like Milton. Bunyan in his book is prophesying his spiritual positions. He satirizes his society which is full of frailties that violate the instructions of the Christian faith. However. his Puritanism weakens the consequence of his societal sarcasm by cheering his readers to digest poorness with forbearance in order to seek the “Celestial City” . Besides. the usage of fable in most of his plants makes his satirical images less direct and more hard to see. His books are more frequently read as spiritual books than as acute exposures of societal immoralities.

Bynyan is known for his simple and lively prose manner. Everyday idiomatic looks and scriptural linguistic communication enables him to narrate his narrative and uncover his thoughts straight and in a straightforward manner. The influence of his prose in the development of the English linguistic communication is great. on history of the great popularity of the book. Selected Reading: “The Vanity Fair. ” an extract from Part I of The Pilgrim’s Progress The narrative starts with a dream in which the writer sees Christian the Pilgrim. with a heavy load on his dorsum. reading the Bible.

When he learns from the book that the metropolis in which he and his household live shall be burnt down in a fire. Christian attempts to convert his household and his neighbors of the oncoming catastrophe and asks them to travel with him in hunt of redemption. but most of them merely disregard him. So he starts off with a friend. Fictile. Fictile bends back after they stumble into a cavity. the Slough of Despond. Christian battles on by himself. Then he is misled by Mr. Worldly Wiseman and is brought back onto the right route by Mr.

Evangelist. There he joins Faithful. a neighbour who has set out later but has made better advancement. The two go on together through many escapades. including the great battle with Apollyon. who claims them to be his topics and refuses to accept their commitment to God. After many other escapades they come to the Vanity Fair where both are arrested as foreign fomenters. They are tried and Faithful is condemned to decease. Christian. nevertheless. manages to get away and goes on his manner. assisted by a new friend. aspirant.

Tired of the difficult journey. they are tempted to take a pleasant way and are so captured by Giant Despair. Finally they get off and make the Celestial City. where they enjoy ageless life in the family of the blessed. The Pilgrim’s Progress is the most successful spiritual fable in the English linguistic communication. Its intent is to urge people to stay by Christian philosophies and seek redemption through changeless battles with their ain failings and all sorts of societal immoralities. It is non merely about something religious but besides bears much relevancy to the clip.

Its prevailing metaphor—life as a journey—is simple and familiar. The objects that Christian meets are homely and platitude. and the scenes presented are typical English 1s. but throughout the fable a religious significance is added to the platitude inside informations. Here the strange is combined with the familiar and the fiddling joined to the Godhead. and. at the same clip. everything is based on cosmopolitan experiences. Besides. a rich imaginativeness and a natural endowment for storytelling besides contribute to the success of the work which is at one time entertaining and morally informative.

The significance of “Vanity Fair” . and its contemplation of the subject of the fable of “The Pilgrim’s Progress” The “Vanity Fair” symbolizes human universe. for “all that cometh is amour propre. ” Everything and anything in this universe is “vanity” . holding no value and no significance. The Vanity Fair. a “market selling nothingness” of all kinds. is a soiled topographic point originally built up by Satans. but. this town “lay” in the manner to the Celestial City. intending pilgrims had to defy the enticements at that place when they made their manner through.

So. the word picture of the “Fair” in selling things worldly and in pulling people bad. represents John Bunyan’s rejection of the secular seeking and pious yearning for the pure and capturing “Celestial City” . his Christian ideal. Alexander Pope ( 1688-1744 ) Pope was a London draper’s boy. His parents were Roman Catholics. and Pope kept this religion all his life in malice of the ill will of the populace in the eighteenth century toward his faith. At the age of 12. a disease left him a kyphosis of less than 5 pess tall.

Because of his faith he was denied entryway to Oxford and Cambridge Universities and his malformation frequently made him the victim of disdain. His early unhappy experiences. in fact. was responsible for his strong reaction to unfavorable judgment. Pope was self-educated. He worked difficult against hapless wellness and unfavorable status and gained a profound cognition of both the classics and the trade of composing. The eighteenth century was an age in which authors had to obey many rigorous literary regulations. But Pope mastered them really exhaustively and used them better and in a more adept manner than most of his coevalss.

He lived an active societal life and was close friend to such high literary figures as the litterateur Joseph Addison and the ironist Jonathan Swift. But he besides made many enemies through roasting people in his Hagiographas. The most popular of his verse form is. possibly. An Essay on unfavorable judgment. which contains a great figure of repeatable lines that have passed into mundane address as popular expressions. such as: “To err is human. to forgive divine” . and “For saps haste in where angels fear to step. ” However. as a piece of literary theory. it lacks original thoughts.

Its significance comes from its averment that literary unfavorable judgment is an art signifier and should work actively like a life being. The Rape of the Lock is a superb sarcasm written in the signifier of a mock-heroic verse form. It offers a typical illustration of the 18th-century classical manner. and a satirical position as well of the gustatory sensations. manners. and ethical motives of the stylish universe in Queen Anne’s reign. In fact. Pope non merely ridicules a fiddling incident that sparks a serious feud. but besides mocks the highflown manner and linguistic communication of heroic poem poesy itself.

The Dunciad. intending the survey of the dunderheads. launches onslaughts on everyone who had of all time criticized or insulted him. many of whom are wholly unknown to the readers of today The subject and manner of A. Pope’s “An Essay on Criticism” The verse form is a comprehensive survey of the theories of literary unfavorable judgment. The poet first laments the loss of true gustatory sensation in poetic unfavorable judgment of his twenty-four hours and calls on people to take classical authors as their theoretical accounts. Then he discusses assorted jobs in literary unfavorable judgment and offers his ain thoughts and nowadayss

the classical regulations. At the terminal of the verse form. he traces the history of literary unfavorable judgment from Aristotle to his twenty-four hours. The verse form is a typical didactic 1. Write in the signifier of epic pairs. it is plain in manner. and it is easy to read. Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe is based on a existent incident. In 1704. Alexander Selkirk. a Scots crewman. was thrown onto a desolate island by the mutinous crew of his ship. He lived there entirely for 5 old ages. Defoe read about his escapades in a newspaper and went to interview him to acquire first-hand information.

He so embellished the sailor’s narrative with many incidents out of his ain imaginativeness. Robinson Crusoe has the visual aspect of a picaresque novel. demoing a lowly person’s wonderings over the universe. However. there are some cardinal alterations in Defoe’s book. A picaro ( Spanish for a knave ) is person with a dubious moral character who does non hold a fixed end in life. Nor does he care much about roll uping money. Robinson Crusoe is in fact a new species of composing which inhabits the picaresque frame with a narrative in the form of a diary and has a strong spirit of journalistic truth.

The hero is typical the lifting English bourgeois category. practical and diligent. with a ungratified wonder to cognize more about the universe and a desire to turn out single power in the face of societal and natural challenges. Defoe attaches single power in the face of societal and natural challenges. Defoe attaches great importance to the growing of Crusoe and attempts to learn a moral message through his narrative. crusoe starts an inexperient. naif and untactful young person. who through old ages of tough sea travels. develops into a clever and hardened adult male. He is tempered and tried by legion dangers and adversities. but ever emerges winning.

He is a existent hero. non in the sense of the knight or the heroic poem hero in the old literary genres. but a hero of the common stock. an individualist who shows fantastic capacity for work. unbounded bravery and energy in get the better ofing obstructions and a astuteness in roll uping wealth and deriving net incomes. In Robinson Crusoe sings the congratulationss of labor. showing it as the beginning of human pride and felicity every bit good as a agency to alter man’s life conditions from despair to prosperity. But at the same clip. through relationship with Friday and his activities of puting up settlements overseas. Defoe besides beautifies colonialism and Negro bondage.

His attitude toward adult females. though non much refering adult females is said in the novel. is besides unfastened to criticisms. for he lets Crusoe dainty adult females as articles of belongings and as a agency to engender and set up a line of descent. But on the whole. this novel is important as the first English novel which glorifies the single experience of ordinary people in field and simple linguistic communication. and besides as a vivid and positive portraiture of the English middle class at its early phase of development. The fresh “Robinson Crusoe” tells the narrative of the titular hero’s escapade on a abandoned island.

Robinson Crusoe. yearning to see the admirations of the universe. runs off from place. and after many reverses. settees down in Brazil. The call of the sea attracts him to 2nd ocean trip in which he is brought along to an island after the shipwreck in a storm through many adversities. he finds ways to acquire day-to-day necessities from the wrecked ship to the shore. and settles on the island for 20 four old ages. During the old ages. he tries to do himself a life in one manner or another. deliver a barbarian whom he names Friday. and builds up a comfy place for himself.

Finally they are picked up and saved by an English ship and return to England. With an inevitable hint of colonialism. the fresh depicts a hero who grows from an inexperient young person into a shrewd and hardened adult male. The escapades of Robinson Crusoe on the island is a vocal of his bravery. his wisdom. and his battle against the hostile natural environment. As the really paradigm of imperium builder and the innovator settler. Robinson Crusoe can be seen as an individualistic adult male who carries human labor and the Puritan fortitude to their greatest consequence.

Jonathan Swift In some ways Jonathan Swift’s calling analogues that of Defoe. Both were well occupied in the unsafe calling of political authors. and both affiated themselves to Robert Harley. foremost a Whig and turning the Tory in 1710. Swift besides followed Harley and shifted from the Whig to the Tory when the latter came to power in 1710. But they differed from each other in the fact that Defoe was a man of affairs and did non hold much cognition of the classics whereas Swift was a cleric and a university alumnus.

Another difference between the two was that Swift was a member of the Anglican Church whereas Defoe was a dissident. Both of them viewed the universe with common sense but Defoe aimed to better the ethical motives of his clip. whereas Swift viewed himan society with disdain and has been called a faultfinder and even a misanthropist. “Gulliver’s Travels” Consisting of four parts. the fresh Tells four narratives of the hero. In portion One. the hero is in Lilliput where he becomes “Man Mountain” . for the dwellers are merely six inches tall. twelve times smaller than human existences.

Yet. as a sort of “man” their expressions and behaviors forms a illumination of the existent universe. Separate Two brings the hero to Brobdingnag. This clip. he comes to shadow. for the Brobdingnagians are ten times taller and larger than normal human existences. Besides superior in wisdom. they look down upon the ordinary human existences for the latter’s immorality or harmful behaviors. The 3rd portion depicts Gulliver’s travel on the winging Island where the so called philosophers and scientists devoted themselves to absurd behaviors. for illustration. to pull out sunshine from Cucumis sativuss.

The last portion tells the hero’s escapade in the Houyhnhnm Land. There Equus caballuss are endowed with ground and all good and admirable qualities. while the hairy. man-like animal. Yahoos are avaricious and gross outing beasts. Henry Fielding During his calling as a playwright. Fielding had attempted a considerable figure of signifiers of dramas: witty comedies of manners or machinations in the Restoration tradition. travesties or ballad operas with political deductions. and burlesques and sarcasms that bear to a great extent upon the status-quo of England.

Of all his dramas. the best known are The Coffee-house Politician ( 1730 ) . The Calamity of Tragedies ( 1730 ) . Pasquin ( 1736 ) and The Historical Register for the Year 1736 ( 1737 ) . These successful dramas non merely contributed to a impermanent resurgence of the English theater but besides were of great aid to the dramatist in his hereafter literary calling as a novelist. Fielding has been regarded by some as “Father of the English Novel. ” for his part to the constitution of the signifier of the modern novel.

Of all the eighteenth-century novelist he was the first to put out. both in theory and pattern. to compose specifically a “comic heroic poem in prose. ” the first to give the modern novel its construction and manner. Before him. the relating of a narrative in a novel was either in the epistolatory signifier ( a series of letters ) . as in Richardson’s Pamela. or the picaresque signifier ( adventuresome rovings ) through the oral cavity of the chief character. as in Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. but Fielding adopted “the third-person narrative. ” in which the writer becomes the “all-knowing God.

” He “thinks the thought” of all his characters. so he is able to show non merely their external behaviours but besides the internal workings of their heads. In be aftering his narratives. he tries to retain the expansive epical signifier of the classical plants but at the same clip keeps faithful to his realistic presentation of common life as it is. Throughout. the ordinary and normally pathetic life of the common people. from the middle-class to the underworld. is his major concern. Fielding’s linguistic communication is easy. unlaboured and familiar. but highly graphic and vigorous.

His sentences are ever distinguished by logic and beat. and his construction carefully planned towards an inevitable stoping. His plants are besides noted for lively. dramatic duologues and other theatrical devices such as suspense. happenstance and surprisingness. Samuel Johnson Johnson was an energetic and various author. He had a manus in all the different braches of literary activities. He was a poet. playwright. prose romancer. biographer. litterateur. critic. lexicologist and publicizer. His head plants include verse forms: “London” . “The Vanity of Human Wishes” ; a love affair: “The History of Rasselas. Prince of Abyssinia ; a calamity: Irene.

As a lexicologist. Johnson distinguished himself as the writer of the first English lexicon by an Englishman—A lexicon of the English Language. a mammoth undertaking which Johnson undertook single-handedly and finished in over seven old ages Johnson was the last great neoclassicist enlightener in the ulterior 18th century. He was really much concerned the subject of the amour propre of human wants: about all of his Hagiographas bear this subject. He tried to rouse work forces to this folly and hoped to bring around them of it through his Hagiographas.

In literary creative activity and unfavorable judgment. he was instead conservative. openly demoing his disfavor for much of the freshly lifting signifier of literature and his fancy for those Hagiographas which carried a batch of moralising and philosophising. He insisted that a author must adhere to universal truth and experience. i. e. Nature ; he must delight. but he must besides teach ; he must non pique against faith or promote immorality ; and he must allow himself be guided by old rules. Like Pope. he was peculiarly fond of moralising didacticism.

So. it is apprehensible that he was instead pleased with Richardson’s Pamela but was disdainful of Fielding’ Tom Jones. Johnson’s manner is typically neoclassical. but it is at the opposite extreme from Swift’s simpleness or Addison’s spruceness. His linguistic communication is characteristically general. frequently Latinate and often polysyllabic his sentences are long and good structured. interwoven with paralled words and phrases. However. no affair how complex his sentences are. the idea is ever clearly expressed ; and though he tends to utilize “learned words. ” they are ever accurately used.

Reading his plants gives the reader the feeling that he is speaking with a really erudite adult male. “To the Right Honorable the Earl of Chesterfield” The missive is regarded as a strong outrage of Samuel Johnson at the Earl’s fame-fishing. for the ulterior in cold blood refused giving him assist when he compiled his dictionary and hypocritically wrote articles to give honeyed words when the lexicon was traveling to be published. The Earl was a well-known “patron of literature” at the clip. and it remained a regulation for authors to acquire a frequenter if they wanted to acquire fiscal support or do themselves known by populace.

But this missive of Johnson made a break-through in that tradition connoting their independency in economic system and authorship. and hence opened a new epoch in the development of literature. Richard Brinsley Sheridan Sheridan was the lone of import English playwright of the 18th century. His dramas. particularly The Rivals and The School for Scandal. are by and large regarded as of import links between the chef-d’oeuvres of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw. and as true classics in English comedy. In his dramas. morality is the changeless subject.

He is much concerned with the current moral issues and ciliums harshly at the societal frailties of the twenty-four hours. In The Rivals. a comedy of manners. he is satirising the traditional pattern of the parents to set up matrimonies for their kids without sing the latter’s sentiment. And in The School for Scandal. the sarcasm becomes even sharper as the characters are exposed scene by scene to their defenseless nudity. Sheridan’s illustriousness besides lies in his theatrical art. He seems to hold inherited from his parents a natural ability and congenital cognition about the theater.

His dramas are the merchandise of a dramatic mastermind every bit good as of a well-versed theatrical adult male. Though his dramatic techniques are mostly conventional. they are exploited to the best advantage. His secret plans are good organized. his characters. either major or minor. are all aggressively drawn. and his use of such devices as camouflage. mistaken individuality and dramatic sarcasm is masterly. Witty duologues and neat and nice linguistic communication besides make a feature of his dramas. The School for Scandal The comedy of manners. written by R. B. Sheridan. chiefly tells a narrative about two brothers.

The senior one Joseph Surface is hypocritical. and the younger one Charles Surface sort. imprudent and spend-all. Lady Sneerwell. one of the scandal-mongers in the drama. instigates Joseph to run after Maria. the ward of Sir Peter. But. Joseph. while prosecuting Maria. the love of his younger brother. attempts to score Lady Teazle. the immature married woman of Sir Peter. Misled by the dirt of Lady Sneerwell and Joseph. Sir Peter Teazle believed Charles was the individual who flirted with his married woman until one twenty-four hours. Lady Teazle. coming from the screen in Joseph’s library. made the truth known that individual who intended to score her was Joseph.

Therefore. the latter’s lip service was exposed. At the same clip. Sir Oliver Surface. the rich. old uncle of the two brothers. wanted to take one of them to be his inheritor. He foremost visited Charles in the pretense of a loan shark. Charles sold to him all the household portraits except that of his uncle. and therefore won the favour of his uncle. Then he went to Joseph as a hapless relation. But Joseph refused giving him any aid by stating that he himself was in problem. For a 2nd clip. Joseph’s lip service was exposed.

The drama ends with Lady Teazle’s rapprochement with her hubby and Charles’ winning of the manus of Maria and the heritage of his uncle. Thomas Gray Although neoclassicism dominated the literary scene in the eighteenth century. there were poets whose poesy had some elements that deviated from the regulations and ordinances set down by neoclassicist poets. These poets had grown weary of the artificiality and commanding ideals of neoclassicism. They craved for something more natural and self-generated in idea and linguistic communication.

In their poesy. emotions and sentiments. which had been repressed. began to play a prima function once more. Another factor taging this divergence is the reawakening of an involvement in nature and in the natural relation between adult male and adult male. Among these poets. one of the representatives was Thomas Gray. Gray was born in London and educated at Eton and Cambridge. where he. after a expansive circuit on the Continent. spent the remainder of his life. He was foremost a Fellow and 1768 was appointed professor of history and modern linguistic communications.

On his return from the Continent. he stayed for a short clip at Stoke Poges in Bucks. where he foremost sketched “ The Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” . though it was finished eight old ages subsequently in 1750. In contrast to those professional authors. Gray’s literary end product was little. His chef-d’oeuvre. “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” was published in 1751. the verse form one time and for all established his celebrity as the leader of the sentimental poesy of the twenty-four hours. particularly “the Graveyard School. ” His verse form. as a whole. are largely devoted to a sentimental plaint or speculation on life. past and present.

His other verse forms include “Ode on the spring” ( 1742 ) . “Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College” ( 1747 ) . “Ode on the decease of a Favourite Cat” ( 1748 ) . “Hymn to Adversity” ( 1742 ) . and two interlingual renditions for old Scandinavian: The Descent of Odin ( 1761 ) and The Fatal Sisters ( 1761 ) A painstaking creative person of the first rate. Gray wrote easy and carefully. fastidiously seeking flawlessness of signifier and phrase. His verse forms are characterized by an keen sense of signifier. His manner is sophisticated and allusive. His verse forms are frequently marked with the trait of a extremely unreal enunciation and distorted word order.

Selected Reading: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard “Elegy written in a Country Churchyard” is regarded as Gray’s best and most representative work. The verse form is the result of approximately eight years’ careful composing and Polish. It is more or less connected with the melancholic event of the decease of Richard West. Gray’s intimate friend. In this verse form. Gray reflects on decease. the sorrow of life. and the enigmas of human life with a touch of his personal melancholy. The poet compares the common common people with the great 1s. inquiring what the parks could hold achieved if they had had the opportunity.

Here he reveals his understanding for the hapless and the unknown. but mocks the great 1s who despise the hapless and convey mayhem on them. The poem abounds in images and arouses sentiment in the bosom of every reader. Though the usage of unreal poetic enunciation and distorted word order make apprehension of the verse form slightly hard. the artistic polish—the certain control of linguistic communication. imagination. beat. and elusive moderateness of manner and tone—gives the verse form a alone appeal of its ain. The verse form has been ranked among the best of the 18th century English poesy. Selected Reading: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard

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