Necessity is the mother of invention
This research subject “necessity is the female parent of innovation. Measure this statement in relation to scientific and technological experiment. ” was chosen for analyzing in the country of information sciences survey. However. the research subject was seemed to be in the philosophical term to understand the basic demand of engineering more than the information sciences topic. which deals with making and developing of computing machine survey. So that this subject needed past experience and historical background to be evaluated. but didn’t need much in instruction background because the subject wasn’t related to the theory or linguistic communication of computing machine survey. The subject in this country was really interested for future survey because it could assist in understanding and calculating the demand of society demand when developing or making new engineering or innovations which lead to the success in concern. These are the fact of this chosen subject.
The analysis of the research subject
The research inquiry is “Necessity is the female parent of innovation. Measure this statement in relation to scientific and technological experimentation” . The cardinal words that show the content of the inquiry are “Necessity is the female parent of invention” . The relationship of this inquiry is to demo the relation between necessity and innovation that necessity is the cause of the innovation or non. The demand of the inquiry is to turn out the relationship between necessity and innovation by evaluates the statement harmonizing to scientific and technological experiment. The proposes of the thesis are to demo that to what extent does necessity be the female parent of innovation and to measure harmonizing to scientific and technological experimentation. Three countries were analyzed during the survey.
These three countries. which are communicating. industry. and medical specialty. were studied in the country that involve in scientific and technological experimentation. The communicating was studied to understand its necessity and innovation of the present. The industry was studied to analyse the state of affairs of necessity in the economical competition. which lead to the usage of innovation. The medical specialty was studied to demo why it is really necessary to human life and what are the alternate innovations that come after. So wholly groundss were collected to back up the thesis of the research inquiry and its intents that the survey defends an statement on the proving of the necessity that lead to the innovation. The diagram on the following page shows the construction of the analysis of the research subject.
The Research Method
The research was carried out in three stairss. The first measure was to understand the research subject by seeking for definition. background history. and general information from the beginning books and diary articles. Then all the information was evaluated to happen out which countries are largely involved in the research subject and scope. which is the scientific and technological experimentation. The 2nd measure was the aggregation of informations to happen the relevant information. The information was analyzed harmonizing to the relevance to the research country. the objectiveness of the writer. and the period spent on collection of the informations. Then 3rd measure. the restriction of the information will be analysis on the certain facets of the subject countries of the scientific and technological experimentation. Therefore. the research will concentrate merely the necessity and innovation in the countries of scientific and technological experimentation. Most of the beginnings that use in the research were some sorts of concern and societal instance survey such as “Cleft roof of the mouth instance in the medical specialty study” ( Singer and Bergthold. 2001. pp. 2161-2230 ) .
Cotterell. A. ( 1988 ) . An overview of research and co-operation in advanced information engineering. In A. Cotterell. Advanced Information Technology in the New Industrial Society ( pp. 1-27 ) . New York: Oxford University Press.
Written for adept director who involve in information engineering that want to happen out which engineerings are matched for their concern country. This chapter depict about new engineerings that involves in industry and concentrate on future engineering. The betterments of communicating and computing machine storage are used to compare in industry country to explicate how necessity are they. Besides. this chapter explains the expert system in new engineering to shown that new engineerings have invented new thoughts in the industry.
Fuglsang L. ( 1993 ) . The “soft” information engineerings and its critics: the hazard of wild policy devising in scientific discipline and engineering. In L. Fuglsang. Technology and New Institution ( pp. 54-96 ) . Danmark: Kobenhavn.
Written for computing machine directors that involve in information system research and development of engineering in future research. These chapter focuses on what innovation creates by the hazards which cause when new scientific discipline and engineering are emerging while old are crisis. The history of engineering over 50 old ages is used to turn out that hazards cause necessity to make innovation of new engineering.
Hall. B. J. ( 2000 ) . Use of the pneumonic arteria catheter in critically sick patients: Was innovation the female parent of necessity? Journal of the American Medical Association. 283 ( 19 ) . 2577-2578.
This article has been written for physician and infirmary that involve in surgery country. This article discusses two surveies sing the usage of pneumonic arteria catheters in critically sick patients and the procedure of its future rating. The usage of pneumonic arteria catheters is necessary for the checkups and surgical intensive units ( ICUs ) . It helps to pull off critically sick patients.
Singer. S. . & A ; Bergthold L. ( 2001 ) . Cosmetic vs. rehabilitative surgery for cleft roof of the mouth: A window into medical necessity argument. Journal of the American Medical Association. 286 ( 17 ) . 2162-2203.
This article has been written for physician in plastic surgery and people who involvement in decorative surgery. Medical necessity is a term that used in most commercial wellness program to make innovation. This article is focus about plastic surgery for a cleft roof of the mouth. and the argument about whether the surgery is decorative or rehabilitative. But because of medical necessity can intend different things to different people and organisation. so it could be both general significance.
Stewart. J. ( 1992 ) . Technological alteration and industrial location. In J. Stewart. The Management of Science and Technology ( pp. 110-192 ) . Danmark: The Australian National University.
This book has been written for pedagogue and director that involve in information engineering and works on the productive country of research. This chapter focal point on Just-in-Time system. which is the new industry system that create by the competition in the universe economic. Because of competition in the market industrial investing. the Just-in-Time system is used to because it is necessary to command cost and increase net income.
Tate. A. N. . Clayton B. S. & A ; Gourley K. G. ( 2001 ) . Development and execution of a managed attention rotary motion in medical necessity reappraisal: Exposing pupils to new chances. Journal of American Pharmaceutical Education. 65 ( 3 ) . 261-307.
The intent of this diary is for senior PHD pupils to plan a rotary motion in managed attention through medical necessity reappraisal. The rotary motion involved working with the Tennessee section of Health’s TennCare Appeals Units. It shows how the impact of druggists can hold on patients’ lives. They claim by utilizing professional development experience to demo the advantage of utilizing druggists.
The Literature Review
The five articles that are reviewed focus chiefly on scientific and technological experiments. which separate into three major countries. These three countries are communicating. industry. and medical specialty. The authors ‘s attitude toward the survey of information engineering and scientific discipline. which are used in society. raised a really elaborate treatment and neatly analysis on the proving of necessity as female parent of innovation. The sub-topics in each country contain of import information involve in necessity of both single and societal points of position. Evidence is provided wholly from all beginnings and can accurately be used to turn out that necessity is the female parent of innovation as grounds and groundss. The intent of the reappraisal is to do a clearly analysis on these six articles toward similarities and differences in their countries.
The first article. an overview of research and co-operation in advanced information engineering by Arthur Cotterell. largely represents in the country of communicating. In this article. he discusses that the communicating is of import to the hereafter of society. Cotterell compares the different between old and new mediums of communicating. which lead to the societal necessity. He explained the medium clearly in inside informations and supported by utilizing a metropolis named Swindon ( Cotterell. 1988. p. 26 ) . which wildly use fiber ocular ( medium ) as his grounds. The successful of the fiber ocular is picked up to turn out his paperss. In the 2nd article by Jenny Stewart. “Technological alteration and industrial location” . represents in industry country. which focus chiefly in competition in market industry investing and scarceness of natural resource for industrial fabrication. She points and explains the consequence of competition and scarceness lead to the alteration of new system.
The Just-In-Time ( JIT ) system. which is a new information system. is used to compare how efficiency it is with the old system. This system is the really successful system that helps cut down and extinguish cost. waste. and velocity in production. She analyse automotive industry in Australia. which success in this system. as her grounds. The smaller. more technological advanced participants. and accurate in the industry is the chief point of the innovation in this article. The 3rd article. which is written by Fuglsang. in the article. he expresses the intending specifically of how and why innovation is created ( Fuglsang. 1993. pp. 54-96 ) . The chief point of his article is to demo that when the clip is running and population is increasing. they cause the old innovation to go crisis and it is necessary to contrive something new to replace the old. This article can be used as theory and ground to explicate and clearly back up all three countries of communicating. industry. and medical specialty.
The stages of innovation development are used to demo the stairss of scientific and technological betterment. In each stage provide the grounds of the development of innovation clearly since past 50 old ages when a manual turning-machine was created to the automatic machine are used. He besides supports his grounds by utilizing the development of American engineering. He mentions that the turning application of new engineerings in society creates a demand. so it is really of import to surveies more about engineering web in political procedure. The forth article written by Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold. they chiefly represents in the country of medical specialty. This article focuses on medical necessity by compare the different between decorative surgery and rehabilitative surgery. They support the papers that medical necessity in the country of surgery is truly necessity by utilizing “health plans” ( Singer and Bergthold. 2001. p. 2162 ) . This wellness programs is medical necessity criterion that use for good all over the universe. They besides comment by and large that societal screening among medical necessity in surgery is besides included in some instance.
The instance of a dissected roof of the mouth patient is used to analysis and discusses the different between decorative and rehabilitative instance. Then they argue and support that medical necessity findings affecting the status that proven to be particularly debatable non self-desirable. The 5th article written by Jesse B. Hall. “Use of the pneumonic arteria catheter in critically sick patients: Was innovation the female parent of necessity? ” the article show that pneumonic arteria catheters is necessary to most patients that involve in bosom. lung. and blood jobs. He analysed this engineering from 10217 patients in 34 medical and surgical intensive attention units ( ICUs ) in 1998. Harmonizing to Hall. the pneumonic arteria is used in the instance that no medical specialty can used to bring around the illness. He suggests that this innovation still has high hazard. so this is really necessary to better this innovation to assist critically sick patients and the procedure of its future rating.
All issues in five beginnings. which written by Arthur Cotterell. Jenny Stewart. Fuglsang. Jesse B. Hall and Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold. are considered really of import to demo the audience the historical and current significance of continuity approximately necessity as female parent of innovation in the term of scientific and technological experiment. This is because when the old innovation is considered as the necessity for the hereafter betterment. the go oning betterment to the new innovation will be created. Arthur Cotterell writes about the usage of communicating medium during the past 10 old ages until the usage of new medium today ( Cotterell. 1988. p. 26 ) . His illustrations of distorted brace and fiber ocular overseas telegram show the fact that the why the addition of public presentation of new medium are used by the alteration in society. It shows the audience clearly the distance between clip in the past and nowadays of societal necessity. This article besides talks about the rapidly additions of necessity which lead to the betterment of new medium in the hereafter continuously. In the issue of Jenny Stewart and Fuglsang have the similar country in the industry that besides express the same significance of demand in the industry. Jenny Stewart shows the alteration in industry system by utilizing automotive industry in Australia since 1990 ( Stewart. 1992. p. 124 ) .
Fuglsang shows the rationalisation stage ( Fuglsang. 1993. p. 56 ) . which is one of 4. stages in technological innovation development. This stage analyses from the past 50 old ages of the development. Both Jenny Stewart and Fuglsang’s article shows the alteration in the industry. which involves in commercial involvements and competition. This article helps to demo the nexus between competition and tutorial in the industry. which leads to the usage of the new innovation. In the remainder of the issues from Jesse B. Hall. and Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold are involved in medicine country that involve in the surgery. Jesse B. Hall talks about the consequence of the usage of pneumonic arteria catheter ( Hall. 2000. pp. 2577-2578 ) . This consequence shows the demand of decorative surgery among the people who have job of the natural disable of the organic structure and besides explain the usage of the innovation to assist work out the job.
Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold article besides aid to demo that since from the past the significance of medical necessity is average merely Reconstruction to the normal province of patients. Both issues from Jesse B. Hall. and Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold come form the different medical instance but they have similar thesis. which are medical necessity that lead to the innovation of new medical innovation. All the authors come from the different countries but they have the same significance of their issues that the go oning of the clip lead to the addition of demand of innovation in both new and betterment. So that their issues are strongly back up the statement that necessity creates the innovation in the portion of scientific discipline and technological experimentation.
There are three articles which certainly are the aim of the authors when they present research their research consequences and grounds to back up their statements because these articles provide complete information and inside informations of the papers. The first article. which is nonsubjective. by Arthur Cotterell supports and expresses the significance of his statement clearly by utilizing the complete illustrations and information of communicating mediums ( Cotterell. 1988. pp. 1-27 ) . He shows the item figure of capacity. velocity. scope. and material made in each medium sample clearly. He besides compares the different in each medium by mathematical computation. This helps audience to easy understand the different even proficient term. The 2nd article. which is nonsubjective. from Fuglsang is nonsubjective because he has the recognition from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States ( Fuglsang. 1993. pp. 54-96 ) . His article and support groundss come from the instance surveies in Denmark. US. and Sweden. They are emphasis and detail clearly on the influence of civilization. organisational picks and institutional concerns through research.
The 3rd article. which is nonsubjective. from Jenny Stewart is nonsubjective because her statement and beginnings come from the federalism research Centre ( Stewart. 1992. pp. 110-192 ) . She provides the information clearly in the illustration of automotive industry in Australia in per centum of net income. clip. rival. and addition of merchandise end product. The other two articles from Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold. and Jesse B. Hall are non nonsubjective because they provide the information excessively general. It is general because the information they provide is non specific in figure of consequence from the sequence in medical intervention. Both of them show merely the consequence from the innovation by utilizing lone grounds. causes and effects after intervention ( Singer and Bergthold. 2001. 2162-2203 ) .
This is because most of the article is the sum-up of the consequence of the cleft roof of the mouth research. so that they merely reference about the demand and future development. which consequence from the sequence of cleft roof of the mouth surgery. Although they don’t supply wholly information. the country that they work is in medicine country. which concentrates merely the consequence of necessity. So that their article can show their chief thoughts easy and clearly understand by utilizing ground. cause. and consequence paperss. By comparison all the articles which each others. the information that provided by the writers are adequate to back up the necessity of innovation by utilizing their particular inside informations and information. research. grounds. causes. and effects. Their beginnings are considered as indispensable in comparative and explicating the necessity as female parent of information in scientific and technological experiment.
The reading of information is clearly in all five beginnings because all informations can be analyse to measure the demand of the research subject in relation to scientific and technological experiment easy. The relationship between the necessity and the innovation is linked in clearly understand. There are three different ways in their reading of informations. The first manner is represented by the article of Arthur Cotterell. He interprets his information by explain the item of old communicating medium and new communicating medium in proficient term and estimated computation of velocity. capacity. and scope. For illustration. he explains that twisted-pair could transport 10Khz but if compare with fiber ocular ( Cotterell. 1988. p. 26 ) . fiber ocular is faster than twisted-pair million times. He besides clarifies the usage of fibre ocular that it uses in associating between two or more webs and twisted-pair utilizations in local phone line. The 2nd manner is represented by Fuglsang and Jenny Stewart.
They interpret their beginnings by utilizing the consequence of the clip in the industrial development. They show the alteration and demand since from the yesteryear and consequence of it in the present. The clip between standardisation and rationalisation is used by the writer to demo the relation of the betterment of the innovation from first creative activity to the first development ( Fuglsang. 1993. 56-56 ) . The 3rd manner is represented by Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold. and Jesse B. Hall. They interpret their beginnings by utilizing the consequence of their information. which is the particular in medicine. They summarize the consequence of medicine from the patient and utilize it to back up their statement. The research consequence of the patient in a cleft roof of the mouth instance is used to analysis the term of medical necessity in the surgery country of medical specialty.
The consequence after the surgery is used to compare that the surgery is rehabilitative surgery non decorative surgery. In comparing of all the authors. they interpret all informations clearly. All the informations are separated into three countries. which Arthur Cotterell is in communicating country. Fuglsang and Jenny Stewart are in Industry country. and Singer S. and Linda Bergthold. and Hall are in medicine country. There reading of informations can back up each others and show their apprehension in analyse that necessity as female parent of innovation clearly.
There are three articles that are conducted the research exhaustively in order to turn out the points by the authors. The complete research could assist the claim of research subject to go more strong and dependable without being counter by other statement. Arthur Cotterell. Singer S. and Linda Bergthold. and Jenny Stewart are the authors who do their research exhaustively. Arthur Cotterell researches neatly on the information system research. which express all the significance. stuff used. quality. and public presentation of each medium between communications clearly ( Cotterell. 1988. p. 15-27 ) . He use a metropolis name Swindon to make his research. This metropolis is widely usage in fiber ocular and coaxal overseas telegram to associate between communicating which mean that it is a really efficiency beginnings to utilize on communicating research. Singer S. and Linda Bergthold research on the medical necessity on surgery class. They use a patient who was born with cleft roof of the mouth job as their research ( Singer and Bergthold. 2001. pp. 2162-2180 ) . They clearly research on the consequence before and after that patient take the surgery.
They besides research on the wellness program of the medical criterion and analyze it with medical theory as the rehabilitative medicine. Jenny Stewart researches on the Australia industry. She finds out that the grounds of necessity in industry semen from the competition. which lead to the demand of more flexible. fast. and efficiency engineering ( Stewart. 1992. p. 124-192 ) . This led her to happen out the new system. Just-in-Time system. and research it on the Australia automotive industry. She has the consequence of how efficiency and profitableness it is. The other beginnings from Fuglsang and Jesse B. Hall are non researched exhaustively because they get the information from general beginning straight without to the full item.
Fuglsang picks up the history to talk to back up the statement but the item on his suggestion seem non clear on inside informations and analysis. From Arthur Cotterell. Singer S. . and Linda Bergthold. and Jenny Stewart research. they are really to understand their point of position from their research and straight connect audience to the apprehension. The clearly inside informations and information of their research link their thoughts to the necessity as female parent of innovation in the scientific and technological experiment.
From five beginnings. there are four beginnings that provide practical and realistic suggestion by the authors. The practical and realistic of suggestion can assist the article to go more clear and easiness of understanding. First is Jenney Stewart. she suggests that hereafter of the industry needs smaller. more technological advanced participants. and truth ( Stewart. 1992. p. 125 ) . The author suggestion shows that her survey is really of import to the usage of engineering for the hereafter usage. Her suggestion is proved by her comparative of old engineering and new engineering that show the alteration of size. quality. measure. and velocity. Second is Arthur Cotterell. he suggested that by the aid of computer-aided design would assist to avoid a batch of probationary stuff film editing. The author suggestion shows that his survey is really of import for the industry to increase their public presentation of the system. This is really utile in demoing the relationship between necessity and innovation.
Third is Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold. they suggest that decorative or interventions intended chiefly to better visual aspect is exclude in medical necessity criterion ( Singer and Bergthold. 2001. p. 2162 ) . The writers’ suggestions are used for people to understand that the intent of surgery is different in some instance because some instance could number as personal desirable such as decorative. This shows the relation between medical necessity and innovation clearly. They support their suggestion by measure the cleft roof of the mouth in the medical necessity term and wellness programs.
Forth is Fuglsang. he suggests that the turning application of new engineerings in society creates a demand to delegate a more violative and organized function to engineering surveies webs in the political procedure. This suggestion shows that his item on survey is really of import for who is interested in technological development. The author proves his suggestion by evaluate and show the demand over past 50 old ages of the development of information and communicating engineerings in four stages ( Fuglsang. 1993. p. 55-58 ) . From all the suggestion of all authors could assist the audience to cognize what are the chief involvements in on the articles of the authors. which are really utile.
There is no certainly usage of adept sentiment from all the authors. They haven’t pick up any adept sentiment but they adapt to utilize another people and topographic point from other beginnings as their adept sentiment. The adept sentiment on the article of Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold is non mentioned clearly. They use the term doctor as their adept sentiment to assist back up their statement in consider appropriate medicine for a patient. such as intervention intended chiefly to better visual aspect. Equally same as Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold. Jenny Stewart doesn’t usage adept sentiment but she uses other sentiment. Lamming ( 1998 ) . who is one from her beginning. Scating negotiations about the industry staying efficaciously in “stress period” . This sentiment helps audience understand the best period of industry development.
In the article of Fuglsang L. . this author usage Sloth Andersen and Slavo Radosevic. who are non mention clearly who are they. as the adept sentiment. They talk about an invention forum. which help to back up the author about the alteration of engineering during a century so that the position of technological alteration would be see as the of import to the new innovation. The remainder of the authors do non hold any adept sentiment to back up their statement. But in the instance of their authorship. the support of adept sentiment is non of import because the groundss and illustrations are adequate to name as adept sentiment in the instance of scientific discipline and technological experiment.
In decision. all of the five articles are clearly reappraisal. analyse. and can be dependable. All the beginnings negotiations in the countries of communicating. industry. and medical specialty by utilizing assortment of grounds and alternate ways of utilizing adept sentiment. The objectiveness of each authors are confirm in all beginnings and the reading are really clear. The thoroughness of intervention of the capable affair could confidentially be used from the analysis. Each suggestion from all authors are mentioned largely point to the hereafter usage and analysis. For farther research the survey of more assortment of necessity in making innovation must be more research and survey to show their significance widely in different country. This could assist to look and analysis more widely in today and future development of innovation. But the chief point of all reappraisals is to happen out the best ways to the consequence of successful hereafter.
The Limitations of research
This research limited by certain factors. The research was limited by some restrictions of the subject. The personal factor was caused by the research subject is non straight related to the past experience and educational background but largely related to the philosophical country which is non computing machine survey. This caused the deficiency of some particular or direct information that could assist analyse the subject more efficiency. Another ground is the topic inquiry is some sort of inquiry that can reply in two ways that people could hold and differ depends one the personal sentiment so that the grade of the reply to the inquiry is non strong plenty. This caused some portion of the statement easy to be counter by some state of affairs in both side of agree and disagree.
The suggestions for future survey
The jobs of restriction of research need some suggestions to be made for future survey. First to work out the job of missing in specific instruction background. this research needs the specific instruction of doctrine and psychological science to assist supply more specific and strong supported information for the term of human necessity. This can assist to better the supported statement of the essay to go more dependable. This hereafter survey can make by concentrate on the uninterrupted of innovations in each country in term of psychological science. which will be really helpful in this research. The research doesn’t demand to happen out the started point or the first creative activity of the innovation because this essay was merely concentrating in present innovation.
Second hereafter survey is by seeking more support from the adept sentiment to assist work out the restriction of unstable statement due to the significance of research subject. which is excessively broad in general. The more researched findings of supported adept sentiments can strongly assist to back up the statement and do the research go more dependable. This could be done by focal point on the adept sentiments that involve in the sequence in each country of industry. medical specialty. and communicating. The success of adept sentiments is more dependable and couldn’t be counter by other argument easy. In decision. if all suggestions of future survey are wholly finished the research will non hold any clean infinites to be counter by other counter statement.