N101 – Theories of Lifespan Development

Why is it important to study lifespan Development?
People are living much longer than they used to.
It is important to know where we’ve been and where we are headed

Traditional views of lifespan development
Traditional – Childhood is a unique time of development that lays the foundation for adult years
Original Sin – Children are inherently evil
Tabula Rasa – Children are a blank slate
Innate Goodness – Childrena re good

Traditional views of old age in lifespan development
old age is just decline (wasn’t even an old age, because people died so young)

Contemporary view of lifespan development
needed because of increased lifespan
Childhood lays foundation (same)
Development continues throughout life.

Seven Bais characteristics of life-span perspective
Lifelong development
Multidimensional – biological, cognitive and socioemotional
Multidirectional – growth and decline at all periods of development
Plastic – changing, can learn at all ages
Multidisciplinary – psychology, biology, sociology
Involves growth, maintenance and regulation depending on which stage of lifespan you’re at
Contextual – families, school, socioeconomic status, cultural

3 categories of Context
normative – puberty, walking, menopause etc.
nonnormative – lottery death of a child
non-normative history graded – Katrina, 9-11, H1N1

Developmental processes (3)
Biological – changes of a Physical nature (puberty)
Cognitive – changes in thought intelligence and language
Socioemotional – Changes in relationships, emotions and personal circumstances (motherhood, divorce)

Developmental periods
Prenatal – Conception to Birth
Infancy – B- 19-24 months
E. Childhood – 19-24months – 5-6 years
M and L Childhood – 6-11
Adolwescence – 10-12 – 18-22 years
E. Adult – late teen to end of 30’s
M. Adult – 40-60
L. Adult – 60-death

4 concepts of age
chronologica – years
Psychological – Adaptive capacities (comparison)
Biological – Development, nutrition, lifestyle, fitness and environmental factors and socioeconomic factors
Social – stage of life (mom of baby, empty nester)
Mental Age – IQ
Coreected age – Preemie

Key Developmental Issues
Nature v.s nurture: genetics or experience
Continuity vs Discontinuity: gradual or distinct stage
Stability vs Change: Fluidity or firm

Theory
Set of idease that explain an observation. Can be used to make predictions

Freud
Five years for personality, 5 stages of dev
thRee structures of personality Id, ego, superego
psychosExual theory
U
D

Freuds five stages of Development
Oral – B- 18 months – pleasure eating sucking, biting
Anal – 18 – 3 years – elimination,
Phallic: – 4-5 years – manip of genitals
Latency – 6-puberty – represses sexuality
Genital – sexual pleasure from outside of family

Erikson
Eight stages throughout life
TAG 3 I’s GI
Psychosocial

Erikson’s developmental stages
Trust vs. Mistrust – B-1 year – comfortable, safe,hope
Autonomy vs. shame – 1-3 – will and independence – will
Guilt vs. initiative – 4-5 – Responsibility – purpose
Industry vs Inferiority – K-6 – mastery, creativity, imagination – competence
Identity v. Identity confusion – Adolescents – Self discovery – fidelity
Intimacy vs. Isolation – E. Adult – Commitment to health $ and relationships – love
Generativity v. stagnation – M. Adult – Next Generation – care
Integrity v. despair – L. Adult – seniors, reflection on life – wisdom

Skinner
Behavioural and social Cognitive
Consequences of behaviour determine likelihood of reoccurrence
Rewards and punishments
operant conditioning

Bandura
Observational learning (imitation)
Behavior, Environment and Person Triangle
Unintentional Learning

Bronfenbrenner
Importance of Environment is Ecological
Five systems influence development
Micro – setting where one lives. school, neighborhood, family, peers
Mesosystem – Relationships between microsystems or contexts, (school to church, family-peers)
Exosystem – An experience in another persons social setting eg. wife’s office friends
Macrosystem – culture, country, Social-economic status
Chronosystem – Age or period of time – eg. Technological era, Wartime, drought

Maslow
Humanist, hierarchy of needs, Human nature is neutral or inherently good, self actualization, full potential, not a lot of science
Physiological – breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis
Safety – security of body of employment or resources, of morality, family, health, property
Love/Belonging – Friendship, family, intimacy
Esteem – Self esteem, confidence, achievement, respect
Self-actualization – morality, creativity, spontaniety
problem solving, lack of prejudice

Cognitive Theory
emphasize conscious thoughts and associate with construction of knowledge

Jean Peaget
Children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through 4 age related stages of cognitive development

Piaget believed we adapt in 2 ways
Assimilation – indivdiuals incorporate new info into their existing knowledge
Accommodation: individuals adjust to new info

Piaget’s 4 stages
Sensory motor stage – B-2, understanding built by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions
develops from instincts – beginning of symbolic thought
Pre-operational stage – 2-7, world represented with words and images (symbolic thinking)
Concrete operational – 7-11 – reason logically and classify objects into sets
Formal operational – 11-adulthood – reasons in abstract, idealistic and logical ways

Rogers
Therapy, Congruence of self and ideal self
Conflicts arise based on distance between the two

Information processing approach
individuals manipulate info, monitor it and strategize
memory and thinking

Sieger
expert on chldren’s info processing
thinking is processing

Pro’s of Cog approach
present a view on development emphasizing the individuals conscious thinking
emphasize individuals active construction of understanding

cons of Cog approach
skepticism of the pureness of piagets stages
Don’t give adequate attention to indivdiuals variations
Not enough attention to unconscious processes

Vygotsky’s socio-cultural cog theory
culture ad social interaction guide cog development
Dev occurs throughout social interaction with knowledgeable members of society

Ethological theories
Behaviour is: strongly influenced by biology
tied to evolution
characterized by critical or sensitive periods
links human behaviour to animals

Lorenz
imprinting is rapid, innate, learning within a limited critical period that involves attachment to the first moving object seen
critical period is a fixed time period very early in development

Bowlby
Type of attachment an infant has with his caregiver over the first year of life will influence development

Pro Ethological approach
increased focus on the biological and evolutionary phase of development
use of careful observations in settings
emphasis on sensitive periods of development

Con’s ethological approach
critical and sensitive periods might be too rigid
too strong an emphasis on biological foundations

Moral development theories
how are morals acquired?

Kohlbergs theories have 3 levels. What are they
1 – Pre-conventional reasoning (6-12)
External rewards and punishment no internalization of morals
2 – conventional reasoning (early-mid adolescence)
standards of others, intermediate internalization of morals
3 – post conventional reasoning (late adolescence)
morality is completely internalized and not based on others standards

Why are developmental theories important to Nursing
Greater insights into our own history and helps us understand the behaviour of patients – how they behave and why they behave as they do.

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