Motor Learning CH 7

Experimental approach
-understand behavior emphasizing common principles among people and experiments
-methods involve conducting actual experiments

experimental method
a method of understanding behavior emphasizing common principles among people and through the use of experiments

Differential approach/method
-understand behavior by focusing on individual differences and abilities
-concerned with fact that not all of us are the same
-focuses on the ways in which we are different from one another

individual differences
stable, enduring differences among people interns of some measurable characteristic (age) or performance of some task (reaction time)
– 2 distinct emphases: study of abilities and the the study of prediction

ability
a stable, enduring, mainly genetically defined trait that underlies skilled performance, is largely inherited, and is not modified by practice or experience

Abilities are:
-inherited traits
-stable and enduring
-number perhaps 50
-each underlies many different skills

correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

prediction
the process of using people’s abilities to estimate their probable success in various situations

skill
refers to one’s proficiency at a particular task, such as shooting a basketball

Skills are:
-with practice
-easily modified with practice
-essentially countless in number
-depends on several abilities

Individual differences in skills have these characteristics:
-differences tend to be stable from attempt to attempt
-differences endure across time
-differences need more than one measurement

General Motor Ability Hypothesis
– an outdated view, held that motor performances are based on a single ability called general motor ability
– a person with strong general motor ability should be good at all motor tasks

Correlations Among Various Skills
– generally, relationships (measured by correlations) between various skills are low suggesting that there are many abilities, which are very specific to particular tasks
-even skills that appear to be quite similar usually correlate poorly

Correlations Among skills Cont.
-correlations computed among different skills are generally very low
-skills that appear to be quite similar usually correlate poorly
-two skills with only minor differences (ex. throwing 10 m for accuracy and throwing 15 m for accuracy) can correlate strongly
-many abilities and not simply a single general motor ability

Abilities as a Basis for Skill Classification
Effective Classification allows instructors to:
– ensure the learning principles are appropriate for the skill being taught
-give the learner more assistance with underlying features of the skill important for movement control
-choose an individual for advanced training based on the match of the person involved in the task

specificity hypothesis
the hypothesis that individual differences are based on many independent abilities

Attempts at prediction involve these components:
-understanding the abilities that underlie the criterion tasks
-estimating the strength of these abilities in applicants as indications of their future capabilities in criterion task
-estimating the potential skill on the criterion task based on present information about the applicants

“reference test”
well-studied tests thought to measure abilities of various kinds (ex. reaction time, movement time, and spatial relations)

Performance in Early Practice
-the shift of abilities with practice and experience can be a problem if you attempt to select performers on the basis of their performance in early practice

Novice Performance
-assuming that the people who have succeeded at an early stage of practice are strong in abilities required for novice performance
-these people, after extensive practice, may not be very well suited for high-level proficiency because they may not be strong in abilities needed for expert performance

relative-age effect
Phenomenon in which members of an age-normative group who are born early in a given year are “relatively older” that participants born late in the year

How effective is Skill Prediction
-not very effective in motor behavior
-underlying abilities in motor performances have not been studied systematically and are not well understood
-the number of underlying abilities is probably large, requiring that many abilities be measured
-pattern of relevant abilities shifts with practice and experience, making prediction of expert performances difficult

superability
a weak general ability thought to contribute to all tasks